Latin II/III Review

Latin II/III Review

Latin II Welcome-Back Review! 1st and 2nd declension nouns DECLENSION REVIEW! Nouns are the names of persons places or things. Latin Nouns Have 4 Features Case---how a noun works in its sentence. Number---whether a noun is singular or plural (singular=one, plural=more than one) Gender---whether a noun is masculine, feminine, or neuter. Declension---each noun belongs to one of

the 5 declensions: groups of nouns that share the same pattern of endings In Latin, the use of the noun is determined by its case ending, not its place in the sentence. There are five cases: Nominative - subject and predicate nominative Genitive possession Dative - indirect object Accusative - direct object Ablative (various) 1 Declension Nouns

st Lets learn how to write a 1st declension noun on its declension chart. A declension chart shows the noun in all its cases (spellings). For example AQUAM AQUIS AQUA AQUAE AQU AQUARUM AQUAS 1 Declension Nouns st

1st declension nouns end in ae in their genitive form (the 2nd form listed in the vocab list). Most 1st declension nouns are feminine. aqua, aquae (feminine) :water Step 1 Find the noun stem The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the noun. Dictionary entry of a noun: Puella Nominative singular puellae, f. Genitive

singular girl Meaning Gender Puellae ae = puell Noun Stem Finding noun stems aqua, aquae (f.) aquinsula, insulae (f.)

insulsilva, silvae (f.) silvvia, viae (f.) vi- In Latin, the endings indicate the case of the noun. Case (Endings) Singular Plural Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Example: insularum = plural genitive

a ae ae am W rit et do he wn se ! ae arum is as is Step 2: Add the case endings to the noun stem. Singular

Plural Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative On your whiteboard, decline the following 2 nouns: via, viae (f.) and aqua, aquae (f.) Lets Review! 2ND DECLENSION: Nouns that have i in their genitive singular are 2nd declension. amicus, amici (m.) vir, viri (m.) ager, agri (m.) Step 1 Find the noun stem The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the

noun. Dictionary entry of a noun: servus Nominative singular servi, m. Genitive singular slave Gender Meaning servi i = servNoun Stem Step 1 Find the noun stem The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the noun.

Dictionary entry of a noun: ager Nominative singular agri, m. Genitive singular field Gender agri i = agrNoun Stem Meaning In Latin, the endings indicate the case of the noun. servus, servi (m.) --- slave

Case Singular Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative servus servi servo servum servo Plural servi servorum servis servos

servis By following the stem rule, a word like ager loses its -e after the first form. ager, agri (m.) --- field Case Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Singular ager

agri agro agrum agro Plural agri agrorum agris agros agris Lets Review: Neuter Nouns 2nd declension neuter nouns have um in the nominative case and i in the genitive case. frumentum, frumenti (n.) signum, signi (n.) Find the noun stem The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the noun.

Dictionary entry of a noun: signum Nominative singular signi, n. Genitive singular Gender sign Meaning signi i = signNoun Stem Neuter Rule The nominative and accusative cases of neuter nouns always have the same endings. The plural nominative and accusative ending

of neuter nouns is always A. Neuter Nouns have the same endings as masculine, except for 3 differences. signum, signi (n.) --- sign Case Singular Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative signum signi signo signum signo

Plural signa signorum signis signa signis WARNING! Weve seen that neuter nom/acc plurals end in a. Remember that 1st declension singular words can end in a, too! If a word ends in a and is feminine or masculine, its singular. (Its 1st declension.) puella, casa, agricola: girl, house, farmer WARNING! If a word ends in a and is neuter, its plural. (2nd declension neuter) signa, praemia, consilia: signs, rewards, plans Look in the glossary or vocab list if youve

forgotten the gender. Its not magicits just a matter of looking up the gender! 1st Declension Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. 2nd Declension Masculine Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

Plural -us/-er/-ir -i -i -orum -o -is -um -os -o -is Plural -a -ae -ae -am -a -ae -arum

-is -as -is 2nd Declension Neuter Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. -um -i -o -um -o -a

Plural -orum -is -a -is Decline ancilla, ancillae (f.) 1st Declension Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Decline ager, agri (m.) 2 Declension Masculine nd Singular

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Plural -us/-er/-ir -i -i -orum -o -is -um -os -o -is Plural -a

-ae -ae -am -a -ae -arum -is -as -is Decline oppidum, oppidi (n.) 2nd Declension Neuter Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

-um -i -o -um -o -a Plural -orum -is -a -is Name That Declension!

umbra, umbrae (f.) shadow 1st nd 2 (n.) oppidum, oppidi (n.) town lupus, lupi (m.) wolf 2nd (m.) luna, lunae (f.) moon 1st vir, viri (m.) man 2nd (m.) nasus, nasi (m.) nose 2nd (m.) mensa, mensae (f.) table 1st Give the CASE and NUMBER for the following forms.

umbra Nom. Sg. oppida Nom./Acc. Pl. lupis Dat./Abl. Pl. lunarum Gen. Pl. vir Nom. Sg. naso Dat./Abl. Sg. mens Abl. Sg. nasorum Gen. Pl. viri Gen. Sg./Nom. Pl. lupum Acc. Sg. oppidi Gen. Sg. umbram Acc. Sg.

lunae Gen./Dat. Sg., Nom. Pl. mensas Acc. Pl. 1st Declension Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. curae curae curarum curae curis curam curas cur curis 2nd Declension Masculine

Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. lupus lupi lupo lupum lupo Plural cura 2nd Declension Neuter Singular Plural

lupi luporum lupis lupos lupis Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. lorum lori loro lorum loro Plural lora

lororum loris lora loris

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