Japan Takugama to Meiji

Japan Takugama to Meiji

Japan Tokugawa to Meiji Early Japan Samurai were powerful warriors who seized control of feudal states in the Segoku period between 1467 -1586 These warrior chieftains called daimyo offered peasants and others their protection for their loyalty in a feudalistic state

Resembled European feudalism in many ways with fortified castles and small armies of mounted samurai horsemen Daimyo frequently fought each other over territorial disputes Tokugawa Ieyasu, a powerful daimyo, united Japan in 1600 He became the sole ruler or shogun of Japan Tokugawa tamed the daimyo through various measures to curb their power and restore the rule of law Tokugawa founded the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled Japan until 1876 Life in Japan Under the Tokugawa Two and a half centuries of stability, prosperity, and isolationism under the Tokugawa shoguns

Merchant class and wealthy prospered the most; all of Japan benefited from the flowering of Japanese culture during this era Society in Tokugawa Japan Highly structured society The emperor was a figurehead, the shogun was the actual ruler and supreme military commander

Daimyo were powerful landholding samurai Samurai were warriors Peasants and artisans followed next Merchants were at the bottom but gradually became more influential and important Society was strongly influenced by Confucian values that held farmers in the highest esteem By the mid 1700s, Japan shifted from a rural to an urban society Tokugawa Culture Noh dramas were based on tragic themes People read haiku, a three-line verse of poetry Townspeople attended Kabuki theatre, where

actors wore elaborate costumes and make-up European Contact with Japan Early in Japanese history traders and missionaries were welcome Europeans brought new ideas and technologies such as clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, and firearms The Portuguese were the first to trade in Japan The daimyo were most interested in firearms and cannons to promote their positions

Christian missionaries also came in 1549 and began their work Tokugawa Ieyasua feared the missionaries influence and turned his attention to banning Christianity and ridding the country of Christians European Contact with Japan Finally in 1637 shoguns began to persecute Christians and forced them back into Buddhism The ban on Christians and

Christianity was part of an attempt to control foreign ideas By 1639 Japan had a closed country policy Only one port in Nagasaki remained open to foreign traders The port was only open to Dutch and Chinese traders on an island in Nagasaki This gave the shoguns a monopoly on trade and flow of ideas into Japan Japan remained closed to Europeans for 200 years Japan Ends its Isolation

Many European nations attempted to break down the door of Japan's isolationism but failed President Millard Fillmore of the United States sent U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan in 1853 Perry arrived in Tokyo harbor with four well-armed ships The Tokugawa shogun felt forced to receive Perry Perrys request was to open two ports to U.S. ships; however, the threat was he would return in a year with more war ships Other Western powers followed the U.S. lead into Japan By 1860 Japan had granted permission to trade with them all Japans Reaction to the End of Isolationism Japanese were angry with the shoguns for giving in to foreign demands In response they turned to their young emperor, Mutsuhito

In 1867 the shogun stepped down, ending military dictatorship that lasted since the 12th century Mutsuhito took control of the government and chose the name Meiji for his reign which means enlightened rule Mutsuhitos rule, which lasted 45 years, is know as the Meiji Era The Meiji Era

Meiji set Japan on a rapid course of modernization He cherry-picked the best parts of every Western government to bring to Japan Japan emulated or copied the German constitution, the German army command, and the British navy They adopted the American system of universal free public education; requiring all Japanese children to attend They sent educators and students abroad to study By the 20th century the Japanese economy had become as modernized as any in the world They embarked on railroad construction in 1872 and by 1914 had 7,000 miles of track They developed traditional industries for trade goods and expanded their industrial base

Imperial Japan Japan was the most powerful nation in Asia Japan grew more imperialistic with its strength By 1890 Japan had several dozen warships and a standing army of million The Sino-Japanese War drove the Chinese out of the Korean peninsula, destroyed the Chinese navy; and Japan gained a foothold in Manchuria

Japan and China signed a peace treaty, and Japan gained its first colonies Russo-Japanese War Japans victory over China changed the worlds balance of power Russia and Japan were major powers and enemies Japan launched a surprise attack on Russian ships anchored off Manchuria The Russo-Japanese War was the result Japan drove Russian troops out of Korea, captured or destroyed Russias Pacific fleet and destroyed Russias Baltic fleet that arrived late on the scene

Russo-Japanese War Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. president, helped negotiate a peace treaty between Russia and Japan on a ship off Portsmouth, New Hampshire, USA Japan attacked Korea with vengeance and made it a protectorate Japan had become an imperialist world power to be reckoned with in Asia

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