Jan 14 - Iowa State University

Jan 14 - Iowa State University

Lecture 2: Hardware Review 1 Review from last lecture OS is everywhere Electronic devices in our daily life Natural security A critical layer between hardware and

applications An extended machine Resource manager 2 Introduction A computer system consists of

hardware system programs application programs 3 What is an Operating System? It is an extended machine Hides the messy details which must be performed Presents user with a virtual machine,

easy to use abstractions It is a resource manager Each program gets time with the resource Each program gets space on the resource 4 Overview of this lecture

OS history OS Zoo Computer hardware review 5 Operating Systems History

1945-60: Batch Systems Cards 1960-70: Spooling Batch Systems Tapes 1960- : Multiprogramming 1970- : Timesharing

1990- : Real-time, Distributed 2005-: WebOS/IoT/Mobile/Wearable/Implantable/E tc. 6 The Operating System Zoo Personal computer operating systems Single user (usually)

MS-DOS, Windows, Linux Server operating systems Focus on networking Linux, SunOS, Windows NT Multiprocessor operating systems Real-time operating systems Hard versus soft real-time OS

Embedded operating systems Memory, power constraints Smart card operating systems Extreme resource constraints Mobile Operating Systems Android, iOS

7 Computer Hardware Review Monitor Bus Components of a simple personal computer 8

CPU (a) A three-stage pipeline (b) A superscalar CPU 9 Multicore and Multithreading CPU

Multithreading Multiple threads in a single core Multiple cores Multiple cores 10 Memory

Typical memory hierarchy numbers shown are rough approximations 11 Disk Structure of a disk drive 12

Solid State Drive (SSD) Flash Memory based on NAND Cell: Simplest Structure, Array When a charge is applied, the electrons tunnel into the cell through the dielectric barrier. When the charge is stopped the electrons are trapped in the cell. The resulting positive or negative charge can then be measured.

King-Vidas-DFRWS2011 Presentation 13 14 SSD vs. HDD 15

I/O Devices (a) (b) (a) Steps in starting an I/O device and getting an interrupt (b) How the CPU is interrupted

16 An Example: Pentium Structure of a large Pentium system 17

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