XVIII World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf Telecommunications Relay Service *Before and After Its Beginnings* Andrea J. Saks: Chairman ITU-T Joint Coordination Activity on Accessibility and Human Factors (ITU-T JCA-AHF) CODA XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 Why promote and create accessible ICTs, Assistive Technology and International Relay Services?
It is a human right recognized in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD):Enshrined in Article 9 Article 9 of the UNCRPD defines ICT accessibility as an integral part of accessibility rights on par with transportation and the physical environment. Article 9 concerns all ICT products and ICT based applications and services, with a far-reaching implication for industry, governments and civil society All of us who age will have age-related disabilities,
We all (100%) can benefit from more accessible devices and services. We will need relay services. XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 2 I am of Deaf Parents I lived during a time when there wasnt any independent communication for persons who are Deaf over the phone. I also lived during a time to see the world change for the Deaf community. They took their own destiny into their hands, changed their futures and became independent.
XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 3 My Parents XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 4 Phone calls before Text Phones and Relay? As late as 1960, no independent calls! There was no email No internet or instant messaging No mobile phones
No SMS No direct dial phones in many places only with a hearing operator No way without asking a hearing person to help. XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 5 Long Distance Communication Deaf People wrote letters but this took time for a response Drove to make appointments in person or asked hearing friends/family to call Sometimes people were not at home. Strangers sometimes made the calls, especially in an emergency.
XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 6 The Beginning Three Deaf Men Changed the World Robert Weitbrecht Andrew Saks James C Marsters Liberated the telephone and that enabled deaf people to have a political voice that is now heard around the
world! XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 7 A Historical View of events In the 1960s they and their tiny company, Applied Communications Corporation (APCOM) created the first successful deaf telephone network with a modem and a surplus TTY. Surplus model 15 Phonetype acoustic coupler XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 8
One of the First Deaf Telephone Relay Services The hearing children I was one (me 1948) 1st call at 16 months Techniques varied Father spoke directly I listened (earpiece) Oral interpreted Was this 20th century? XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 9 Would you trust this child to run
your life and do your banking? I am the tiny girl with dark hair! The first Deaf Telephone and Relay Service Me! XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 10 The First Transatlantic Call 1975 The late Lord Jack Ashley was at the time a British MP USA Ambassador to UK, the late Elliot Richardson The late Michael Kingbeer
Engineer To Dr Boise Williams HEW London US Trade Center Building, to the US HEW in Washington, D.C. Broke the docket at the FCC! XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 11 Father of V.18, Dick Brandt He wrote most of ITU.T V.18 Saved Baudot protocol from being deleted from V.18 1st rapporteur for the
Disability question in ITU-T Recipient of the TDI Robert Weitbrecht award Invited AJS to ITU to help in 1991 XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 12 The beginning at ITU: 1991 Gary Fereno, US State Department & AJS No personal computers just lots of paper!
XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 13 Gunnar Hellstrom F.703 Total Conversation author What is Total Conversation? Real Time Text, Video and Voice Disability Rapporteur after Dick Brandt Improved V.18 Author of the Accessibility Checklist
Relay Services Implemented Total Conversation in relays and in Emergency Services in the EU Reach 112 project. XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 14 The Beginning of Relay Services
The first idea with a normal answering service using two telephones and two textphones (TTY). My father, Andrew Saks ordering room service in a Hotel via TTY in the 1960s for the first time using a relay service. Breakfast is served in New York ordered by answering service in California! In the USA, Paul Taylor starts the First Relay Service, enabling many deaf people to subscribe and talk to hearing people in the early 70s. Relay services have human beings as the
interface called CAs, Communication Assistants XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 15 USA: The first Deaf Telephone Network The Deaf created and made their system work themselves long before relay services started Photo: Sally A. Taylor wife of Paul Taylor founder of relay services pictured below Reconditioning teleprinters/telex machines donated to TDI Inc. It was by theWFD, Deaf
for23-27 the July Deaf working together with Western Union XVIII World Congress, Paris, 2019 16 Volunteers and the Telephone Pioneers of America Why do we now need relay? When we have: Computers with video
Video phones Email, Mobile phones iPads/Tablets WhatsApp and SMS Instant Messaging XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 17 Why People need relay Services Relay Services connect people to the hearing world in real time. Establishing independence & not having to rely on children-family-friends-strangers. A personal private phone calls with a doctor, lawyer or their childs teacher via a
relay. People answer voice calls in real time. Email, instant messaging and SMS not real time and not reliable for real time tasks. Jobs and Education with Relay Services! XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 18 Types of Relay Services Text Relay Service using a typing device, with or without VCO (voice carry over) and often called TRS as the T stood for TEXT. Video Relay Service for sign language users and some lip reading. CapTel/Web CapTel Relay: the user with
his own voice, speaking directly (VCO) to whom he is calling but receiving reply in text so no need to type. Speech to Speech Relay for those who may have hearing but speak with difficulty. XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 19 Who needs Relay Services? Persons who are deaf, hard of hearing autistic and those speech difficulties 1. 2.
3. 4. People who use sign language with or without speech and there are as many sign languages as countries on the planet if not more. Persons who do not sign but are either deaf or have hearing difficulties and older persons who are deafened later life. Persons who have autism Persons with speech difficulties XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 20
For those wish to use their Voice Captel Relay device for speaking and receiving text for people who wish to speak for themselves. It is a hidden process This is often used by older persons who become deaf later in life. XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 21
The Deaf Community Created their own Deaf Telephone Network Wants International Access that is transparent Must be directly involved and their needs listened to. ITU includes! Participation and creativity in the past to be regarded with respect. Experience must be respected. XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 22 Real Time text conversation
User A User B Why do you need character by character transmission? Because then you get a live conversation suitable for a real time call. Yes, I see, I can read your thoughts at the moment you express them. No waiting. Good! Embracing total conversation A deaf-blind woman uses multimedia communication (ITU-T F.703 service description):
She uses sign-language She receives text Also for emergency services (Outreach 112 trial) Voice, video, text relay refreshable Braille device XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 24
Why People need Relay on the Go In the USA some Relay providers use apps for Mobile phones. Some use Android platforms others use Apple based apps for relay on the move. Portability for Relay Services in real time for real time situations. One major category of importance is real time emergency serivces XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 25 What is next to Discuss ? Future Global Access
Standards: Every relay service should be international like the telephone. International numbering for global access. Who should pay and equivalent service under article 9 of the UNCRPD. Only 26 countries to date have relays XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 26 Standardizing Relay Services ITU-T F.930 (03/2018) - Multimedia telecommunication relay services Q26/16 leading the work in Relay
Services and Guidelines for PWDs Relay Service Providers and PWDs participated in the work XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 27 The list of countries with some form of Relay services. Europe: (Europe) 16:Belgium, Czech, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands. Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland Middle East 1: Egypt The Americas 4:Canada, Colombia, Paraguay
USA many: access in all 52 States Asia 3: Republic of Korea, Thailand, Japan Oceania 2: Australia, New Zealand XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 28 Map of existing Relays XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 29 Final Message People need relays to have full lives for work, family,
friends, education and to contribute back to society and in real time ITU continues to work on Accessibility for ALL XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 30 ACCESSIBLE EUROPE 2019 More information available at: http://itu.int/go/Accessible-Europe-19 XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019
31 Contact Andrea J. Saks Chairman, ITU-T Joint Coordination Activity on Accessibility and Human Factors, (JCA-AHF) Coordinator, Internet Governance Forum, Dynamic Coalition on Accessibility and Disability (IGF DCAD) TDI Representative to ITU (website) G3ict Representative to ITU http://g3ict.org/about/management Accessibility Advisor to USA delegations attending ITU-T and ITU-D Study Groups. E-mails: [email protected]
XVIII World Congress, WFD, Paris, 23-27 July 2019 32
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