1 Dr Jascinth Lindo INTRODUCTION UWISON TO NURSING RESEARCH Introduction Course outline Importance of reading Library tutorial at UWISON Tutorials in the skills lab
Assessment Assignments see hand out 2 Course Assessments Course work 40% Group Project presentation 20% Individual - Literature Review 20% Final examination 60% MCQ 40%
Proposal 20% Research 4 an attempt to increase the sum of what is knownby the discovery of new facts or relationships through a process of systematic scientific enquiry, the research process (MacLeod Clark & Hockey, 1989 cited in Cormack,1996) the systematic collection and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem (Bhunu, 1999)
Research 5 Research (noun) is Research (verb) is do research Research (adjective) e.g. research projec collective Why research skills?
The best care for the public requires an ability to use information to solve clinical and public health problems Health professionals should be able to address health dilemmas through: Careful definition of the problem Efficient review of the literature Brief and efficient screening of articles to find the most relevant and valid information 6 MPH1 : McCawBinns
Nursing research 7 research into those aspects of professional activity which arethe concern and responsibility of nurses. (Cormack, 1999) systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of importance to nurses, including nursing practice, nursing education and nursing administration (Polit & Beck 2006) systematic inquiry that uses disciplined methods to
answer questions and solve problems (Polit & Beck 2010) Importance of research in nursing 8 1. 2. 3. 4. Adoption of evidence based practice Increased professional accountability Improve health care outcomes and contain costs Improved problem solving enhancing the probability of obtaining desired outcomes Evidence based medicine
What is this? Converts information needs answerable questions Efficiently finds the best evidence to answer them Critically appraises the evidence for:
Clinical examination Diagnostic laboratory Published literature/other sources Validity (closeness to the truth) Usefulness (clinical applicability) Applies the results of this appraisal clinical practice Evaluates performance Research activity 10 Requires knowledge of the scientific method
The research process consists of a series of steps, subject to scientific rules. All nurses must develop an awareness of research and recognize its relevance to nursing. Communication of research is as important as the research itself. Scientific Research How is it different from non-scientific research? Focuses on solving problems and pursues a stepby-step logical, organized, and rigorous method to
identify the problems collect data analyze and draw valid conclusions Non-scientific research based on hunches, experience and intuition Characteristics of Scientific Research 1. 2.
Aim The purpose of scientific research is clear e.g. : To determine attitudes towards research and to improve the experience of graduate students pursuing a research methods course at a nursing school in Jamaica. To describe the accuracy of nursing documentation in hospital nursing records. Characteristics of Scientific Research Rigor
Testability must be measurable / Test theoretical model by simulation or experiment Replicability- The same relationship stands repeatedly under the same design parameters Precision - Confidence- refers to the probability that our estimations are correct
refers to closeness of the findings to reality Test theoretical model by simulation or experiment Objectivity- Proven from trend in data/ supported by model Generalizability - Scope of applicability Parsimony- Simplicity in explaining the phenomena or problem Types of research 15
1. Basic research (pure research): generates new knowledge to test theories & generate new theories Example Nurses must intervene when peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) become occluded. Fetzer and Manning (2004) maintained that pharmacological interventions are costly and involve risks. Example of Basic Research continued They explored the use of a mechanical percussive technique. A 5- to 10-mL syringe was filled with 1 mL of normal saline and then attached to the hub of the occluded catheter. The plunger was pulled back and released at 2second intervals until patency was restored. When the plunger was released, a pop sound
was heard, thus, the technique was named POP. Thirty PICC catheters were clotted with human blood and incubated for 8 hours in a 35F saline bath. Using the POP technique, patency was restored in 86% of the occluded catheters. Types of Research 2. Applied research Is concerned with using knowledge to solve immediate problems. Applied research is directed toward generating knowledge that can be used in the near future. It is often conducted to seek solutions to
existing problems Many studies contain elements of both basic and applied research because theory is being tested that will have immediate Types of research 3. Action Research is a systematic inquiry conducted by teacher researchers to gather information about the teaching/learning process (Mill and Ogilvie, 2003). It involves deliberate actions to improve a specific aspect of teaching practice and focuses on how teachers
transform teaching to have a positive impact upon student learning (Ferrance, 2000) References 19 Polit, D. F, & Beck, C. T. (2010). Essentials of nursing research: Methods, appraisal, and utilization. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Ferrance, E., 2000. Action Research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational, Laboratory at Brown University. http://www.lab.brown.edu/pubs/themes_ed/act_research.pdf (Retrieved, August 30, 2011).
Lindo JLM, Holder-Nevins D, Dover Roberts D, Dawkins P, Bennett J. (2013) Shaping the research experiences of graduate students using action research at a school of nursing in Jamaica, Nursing Education Today Feb 7. doi:pii: S0260-6917(13)00005-1. 10.1016/j.nedt.2013.01.004. [Epub ahead of print]
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