INTEGRATING PV SYSTEM TO THE POWER GRID OUTSIDE U.S.A. (NIGERIA) By Gabriel Motunde 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 1 INTEGRATING PV TO THE POWER GRID OUTSIDE U.S.A. (Nigeria) INTRODUCTION Integrating the PV to the power Grid in Nigeria The technology
The economics The cost The policies The barriers Conclusion References 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 2 Overview Nigeria is a country in West Africa. It is centered on geographical coordinates of 10N and 8W with a total landmass of 923768 square kilometers, making it the 14th largest nation in Africa. It borders Benin and Cameroon to its West and East respectively, with Chad and Niger at the North. The population is about 160,2471,000, with an annual growth rate
of 3.2%. Renewable Solar energy technologies have an enormous potential in the Nigeria and only if the potentials can be realized at a reasonable cost . The total irradiation of 5.5kW-hr/day/ m2 (ECN-UNDP, 2005) of solar radiation in Nigeria is not utilized for PV generation. The integration of Solar PV grid technology into the Nigerian grid systems will provide an attractive environmentally sound technology 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar options for the Nigerian Electricity 3 The Urgency of PV System Integration in Nigeria EPILEPTIC CURRENT SUPPLY HAS ALLOWED THE BUSINESSES TO RELY SOLELY ON GENERATORS AS THE ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF POWER SUPPLY. POWER BLACKOUTS ARE NOT JUST AN INCONVENIENCE; THEY HAVE A SIGNIFICANTLY NEGATIVE IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY AND THE ABILITY FOR NIGERIA TO DEVELOP AS A NATION. 4/13/2016
Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 4 Introduction to Photovoltaic What What What What What What 4/13/2016 is is is is is
is Photovoltaic? PV Cells? PV Modules? PV Encapsulation? PV Panel? PV Array? Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 5 Introduction to Photovoltaic Photovoltaic cell can be easily defined as the production of electric current at the junction of two substances exposed to light. Or as the method of converting radiation into DC electricity. THE BENEFIT OF THE SOLAR CELLS Minimal maintenance Energy independence Systems are easy to expand Environmental friendly Maximum Reliability Reduce vulnerability to power loss
4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 6 Introduction to Photovoltaic PV Solar Cell is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current (DC). Some PV cells can also convert infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation into DC electricity. The two examples of PV cell. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 7
Modules PV Modules are a group of PV cells connected in series or parallel or both and encapsulated in an environmentally protective laminate. The PV module is the smallest package that produces useful power. The process involved in manufacturing these modules requires high precision and quality control in order to produce a reliable product. It is very difficult, and
therefore not practical, to make homemade modules in picture. The typical electrical information usually supplied by the manufacturers are: Polarity of the output terminals or leads Maximum series fuse for module protection Rated open-circuit voltage Rated operating voltage Rated operating current Rated short-circuit current Rated maximum power 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 8 Encapsulation Encapsulation can be defined as a method in which PV cells are protected from the environment, typically laminated between a glassy super-substrate and EVA substrate. Newer light weight flexible laminates use a
polymer super-substrate and a thin aluminum or stainless steel substrate. This is the most critical part of the module manufacturing process. It keeps out moisture and contaminants that cause PV modules to fail prematurely. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 9 PV Panel PV Panel is a group of modules that is the basic building block of a PV array. Panel is a term used for a group of modules that can be packaged and pre-wired off-site. The picture of a typical panel can
be seen below. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 10 Array PV Array is a group of panels that comprises the complete PV generating unit. This array is made up of 8 panels, consisting of 3 modules each, for a total of 24 modules in the array. The typical array on a roof and the courtesy of Auburn University. 4/13/2016
Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 11 PV Technology o o PV technology is growing and very promising in Nigeria with investors from Europe, America and Asia coming to Nigeria to sell their PV technologies. And when we talk about photovoltaic technology, we are talking about inverter. The PV technology is centered around inverter and I am talking about Grid-Tied Inverter. The system is directly coupled with Electric Distribution Network and does not require battery. The two types of inverter Stand-Alone Grid-tied 4/13/2016
Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 12 The Typical Stand-alone PV Inverters from Nigeria 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 13 The Typical Grid-tied Inverter 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 14 Inverter What is Inverter? Its an apparatus that converts direct current into
alternating current. There are so many Indian made inverters in Nigeria. Like Genus, Luminous and Su-Kam. There are two types of Grid Inverter The line commutated 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 15 The Economy for PV to Grid Solar powers role in the global power generation portfolio is growing year over year largely because solar generation increasingly makes economic sense. The epileptic current supply in Nigeria has renewed the populaces interests in PV technologies. There are opportunities for PV integration into the grid in Nigeria. Primary among them is highly distributed PV generation because higher degrees of PV distribution
deliver a more stable power supply. Nigeria lies within a high sunshine belt and thus has enormous solar energy potentials. The mean annual average of total solar radiation varies from about 3.5kWhm2day-1 in the coastal latitudes to about 7kWhm2day-1 along the semi arid areas in the far North. A Study conducted by the Presidential Committee on a 25-year power development plan, constituted in 2005, came up with a projected electricity demand profile for the nation to be about 15,000 MW; 30,000 MW; and 190,000 MW in the short, medium and long terms on the basis of a 10% economic growth rate scenario. With these projections, a study by the Energy Commission of Nigeria indicated that renewable electricity is expected to contribute about 14%; 23%; and 36% and that is huge for a nation of 185 million people. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 16 The Cost of Integrating PV to Grid in Nigeria The cost for integrating PV to the Grid is difficult to predict for Nigeria because there is no local manufacturers and what ever affects
the foreign manufacturers and supplemental technologies to hike the cost of production for PV modules and other smart grid technologies will directly affect the cost of integrating Grid in Nigeria. However, the tax-exemption, import duty waivers and other incentives by the Nigerian government to the foreign investors on PV are geared towards reducing cost. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 17 Distribution o In most regions in Nigeria, the distribution network is poor, the voltage profile is poor and the billing is inaccurate. Some challenges identified are, weak and inadequate overloaded transformers and bad feeder pillars, substandard distribution lines, poor billing system, unwholesome practices by staff and very poor customer relations, inadequate logistic facilities such as tools working vehicles, poor and obsolete
communication equipment, low staff morale and lack of regular training, insufficient funds for maintenance activities. For PV-Grid to be effective, smart grid technology should accompany the PV-Grid for check and balance. More sub-stations can reduce the problems of magnitude and the phase angle for distribution for a long distance and Micro-Grid automation can reduce outage and repair time, maintain voltage level and improve asset management. Advanced distribution automation processes real-time information from sensors and meters for fault location, automatic reconfiguration of feeders, voltage and reactive power optimization, or to control distributed generation. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 18 Table for the Renewable Energy Sources in Nigeria Renewable Energy Sources Small Hydropower Large Hydropower Wind Solar Radiation Fire Wood
Capacities 3,500 MW 11,250 MW 2 - 4 m2 annually at 10 m height 3.5 - 7.0 KMh/m2/day 13,071,464 hectares of forest and woodland Animal Waste 61 million tons/year Crop Residue 83 million tons/year 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 19 Diagrams of a Typical Smartgrid 4/13/2016
Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 20 The Advantages Of Smart-grid o o o o o Wide Area Monitoring and Control Information Communication Technology Integration Renewable and Distributed Generation Transmission and Enhancement Application Advance Metering Infrastructure 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 21 Issues with Grid-tied Inverters
during Distribution Harmonics: The parasitic currents and voltages at frequencies different than the fundamental system frequency (example 50Hz in Europe, 60Hz in America or 50-60Hz in Japan) that are commonly created by the bob-linear loads or power electronic equipment such as inverters that used to convert DC currents to AC current in PV Systems. Islanding: This happens when a section of the distribution network is disconnected from the utility network due to abnormal operating conditions, but the DG continues to unintentionally feed current the network. Fault Current Contribution: Some inverters even though the meet the required standards may still contribute fault currents to the distribution network. Synchronization: The Distributed Generation system should not actively regulate the voltage profile as to allow the power factor to be close to 1 as necessary. The DG should act as a current source for the operating voltage to match the grid voltage in Phase and Magnitude.
4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 22 Policy The Federal Government of Nigeria approved the National Energy Policy (NEP) in 2003 as a desperate measure to encourage Nigerian Solar Energy Development to participate in global PV-Technology research. The NEP articulates the sustainable exploitation and utilization of all viable energy resources, with particular emphasis on solar energy and renewable energy development in general. The policy is hinged on private sector development of the renewable energy sector. The policy provides that the nation shall aggressively pursue the integration of solar energy into the nations energy mix. The nation shall keep abreast of worldwide development in solar energy technology. The NEP, and indeed the renewable energy component, has among other things, the following broad objectives: - To enhance energy
security in the nation through diversifying the energy supply mix. To increase energy access especially in the rural and semi-urban areas. To facilitate employment creation and empowerment. To protect the environment and mitigate climate change. To develop the nations capability in the utilization of solar energy. To use solar energy as a complementary energy resource in the rural and urban areas. To develop the market for solar energy technologies. To develop solar energy conversion technologies locally In 2005, the Electric Power Sector Reform Act, that liberalized the Power Sector and allowed for the active participation of the Private Sector was put in place. In 2007, a biofuel policy and incentives which articulates for the use of E10 and B20 as automotive fuel was approved by the government. It is now under review. Vision 20:20 envisions that by 2020 Nigeria will be one of the 20 largest economies in the world. In meeting this aspiration, economic planners have predicted that the national 13%.VLSI It isD&T however, 4/13/2016 economy must grow by Motunde: Seminar a fact that development, 23 NEP Objectives
The NEP, and indeed the renewable energy component, has amongst other things, the following broad objectives o enhance energy security in the nation through diversifying the energy supply mix To increase energy access especially in the rural and semiurban areas To facilitate employment creation and empowerment 4 - To protect the environment and mitigate climate change To develop the nations capability in the utilization of solar energy To use solar energy as a complementary energy resource in the rural and urban areas To develop the market for solar energy technologies To develop solar energy conversion technologies locally 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar
24 Example of Effective Policy in Germany During summer time, up to a third of the German electricity demand is supplied by solar power through policy mandate.. Because of this, solar power plants that feed into the medium voltage grid must meet the medium-voltage directive valid for Germany. Among other criteria, the directive requires an active contribution to grid stabilization from the solar plant companies. As a service to the grid, the power plants must be able to regulate active and reactive power, which serve as stabilizing factors for the grid frequency and voltage during normal operation. PV power plants are required to provide not only static voltage control but also dynamic grid support to guarantee grid stabilization during grid faults and voltage sag events. The security of supplies can be guaranteed only when all power plants, including renewables, react correctly and quickly to the actual situation on the electricity grid.
4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 25 Barriers Barriers to the Solar-PV integration to Grid in Nigeria in spite of its suitability, solar-PV is making only very slow inroad into the national energy supply mix due to the following barriers: - Low level of awareness Sufficient manpower but lack of technical know-how No domestic manufacturer of PV systems High import duties on imported components Lack of Awareness: There is the general lack of awareness of the benefits of RE electricity
Inadequate Resource Assessment Reliable resource database to assist investment Inadequate Policy Framework on RE: Having approved the National Energy Policy a major challenge is to get the National Energy Master-plan to also be approved and implemented. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 26 Conclusion Nigeria is currently struggling in its energy sector with effects visible in the socio-economic life of her populace. The good news however is that potentials are to remedy the situation. Globally, indications are that, renewable are thriving and hoped to eventually replace traditional fossil fuel consumption, hydro, thermal and wind energies as a viable option in all its advantages. The challenges of renewable energy sources have been identified, and solutions are to be worked on. Research data indicates Nigerias renewable resources are vast, but have remained largely untapped. The epileptic current grid, among other barriers, debars the PV renewable energy integration to the Grid. Therefore, the concept of the smart
grid should become imperative. The benefits of PV renewable energy integration to the Grid cannot be overemphasized, and the smart grid is going to make this possible. 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 27 References Integrating Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Technology into the Nigerian Electricity Grid System Emodi Nnaemeka Vincent, Samson D. Yusuf
Koledoye, T.O., Abdul-Ganiyu. J.A. and Phillips, D.A. (2013) The Current and Future Challenges of Electricity Market in Nigeria in the Face of Deregulation Process. African Journal of Engineering Research, 1, 33-39.  KPMG Nigeria: A Guide to the Nigerian Power Sector, December 2013.  Sambo, A.S., Garba, B., Zarma, I.H. and Gaji, M.M. (2003) Electricity Generation and the Present Challenges in the Nigerian Power Sector. Energy Resources Review, 4, 7-10. Patrick, O., Tolulolope, O. and Sunny, O. (2013) Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System. Smart Grid & Renewable Energy, 4, 391 KPMG Nigeria: A Guide to the Nigerian Power Sector, December 2013. Sambo, A.S., Garba, B., Zarma, I.H. and Gaji, M.M. (2003) Electricity Generation and the Present Challenges in the Nigerian Power Sector. Energy Resources Review, 4, 7-10.
Patrick, O., Tolulolope, O. and Sunny, O. (2013) Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System. Smart Grid & Renewable Energy, 4, 391.Sunday, O.O. and Friday, O.O. (2010) Empirical Modelling of Power Losses as a Function of Line Loadings and Lengths in the Nigerian 330 kV Transmission Lines. International Journal of Academic Research, 2, 47-53. Grid-connected photovoltaic power system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Photovoltaic-grid integrated system http://web.mit.edu/taalebi/www/scitech/pvtutorial.pdf http://www.elp.com/articles/powergrid_international/print/volume-16/issue-5/features/solutions-for-integrating-pv-into-the-grid.html http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~deanron/Lecture_22416.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262107371_Adoption_of_Solar_Grid-Tied_PV-System_Adopted_in_a_Residential_Building https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/a4f0ea9ba5ebe8baf31cba17ff378633_SymmetricalComponents_2013.pdf http://www.uprm.edu/aret/docs/Ch_5_PV_systems.pdf http://www.pv-nutzen.rwth-aachen.de/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Struth_IRES13.pdf http://www.pv-magazine.com/news/details/beitrag/future-pv-grid-integration-at-modest-cost-possible--report-finds-_100012917/ #axzz44AhwCnmw http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-gridintegrationlargecapacity-LR-en.pdf 4/13/2016 Motunde: VLSI D&T Seminar 28 THANK YOU!!! 4/13/2016
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