Introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Key points of IPM Integration Harmonious use of multiple methods to control single pests or pest complexes Pest An organism detrimental to humans, including: invertebrates, vertebrates, weeds, and pathogens Management Decisions based on ecological principles and economic and social considerations Kogan, M. 1998. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Historical Perspectives and
Contemporary Developments, Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 43: 243-270. Key points of IPM IPM is a multidisciplinary endeavor Agronomy (crop and soil science) Entomology (insects: pests and beneficial) Plant pathology (plant diseases) Economics (decision-making) Agricultural Engineering (machinery, grain
handling, etc.) Climatology (weather trends and effects) Kogan, M. 1998. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Developments, Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 43: 243-270. History ~2500 BC: The element sulfur was found to help control mite and insect populations ~1500 AD to present: some plants found to generate insecticidaland more recently herbicidal compounds Pyrethrum (pyrethrin - insecticidal) The Neem tree (NEEM - insecticidal) Bottlebrush plant, Callistemon sp. (herbicide Callisto)
History Late 1800s: inorganic compounds used for insect and fungal organism control, including: Paris green (copper acetoarsenate) Bordeaux mix (copper sulfate and hydrated lime) Lead arsenate Creosote (coal tar derivative) Sodium hypochlorite solutions (bleach)
History 1939 (dawn of the modern insecticide era): DDT recognized as an effective insect control Late 1940s (post WWII): the advent of chemical pesticides including 2,4-D 1948 Warfarin registered as a rodenticide (and later -in the early 1950s- as an anticoagulant in human medicine) History 1962: Silent Spring published 1967: the term IPM first used
History 1970: the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was founded 1979: the Iowa State University IPM program began 1993: call for 75% of U.S. crop acreage grown under IPM principles (by 2000) History 1996: Roundup-ready soybeans introduced in the U.S. By 2005, 87% of commercial U.S. soybean acres were Roundup-ready varieties In 1998 Roundup-ready corn introduced in the U.S.
2000s: U.S. farmers now apply over 1.2 billion pounds of pesticides annually Today: with increasing knowledge of pests, crops, and improving technologies, fieldspecific management is possible IPM 1. What is normal? - Is it really a problem? IPM 2. What is the problem? Proper identification is critical; that is why it is the first step.
3. How and what does the pest attack? Only the plant of interest affected? Parts of plant affected? Patterns in field? Kogan 1998 IPM 4. How many pests are there? Is it too early or too late to control? Management must be at the correct time to maximize
effectiveness. Daylily plants with aphids 5. Determine an action threshold How many pests are too many? Economic, health, and aesthetic threshold Kogan 1998 IPM 6. Choose appropriate management tactics For many pests, there are several management options to consider.
7. Review your work: Was the management effective? Did actions do what you wanted? Was the method itself satisfactory? Were there any unintended side effects? What will be done in the future for this pest situation? Kogan 1998 Three important components
Economic injury level Lowest population density that will cause economic damage Economic threshold Population size large enough to trigger an action to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level General equilibrium position Average density of a population over time Stern et al. 1959 Costs vs. Benefits of a Practice Costs
Product cost Fuel Labor Marketing options May increase crop damage from secondary pests Spider mite damage to soybean Costs vs. Benefits of a Practice Costs Product cost Fuel Labor
Marketing options Predisposition to secondary pests Benefits Yield (economic) Quality (economic) Appearance (aesthetics) Human/livestock health Legal issues Acceptance of resultant commodity by end users Ease of mind What has changed in Iowa?
Fewer farm operators, yet the same acreage Fewer ag retailers, yet the same acreage Increased decision-making by someone other than the grower or pesticide applicator Rapidly emerging crop alternatives and demands (biofuels, special-purpose crops) Increased community and regulatory pressure Increased options (products/formulations) Greater concern about product availability and future costs Iowa Farm Operators 140,000 120,000
# of farm operators 130,000 200 2007 2005 2003 2001
1999 1997 1995 1993 1991 1989 1987 1985
1983 1981 1979 1977 1975 # of acres Average Iowa Farm Size
380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240
220 What hasnt changed? Ultimate goal of IPM: Increase responsible pesticide use. Dont apply when it isnt needed Apply effectively when it is needed Weigh and apply alternative treatments wisely Know what happened afterward
What hasnt changed? Economics is important, and always will be Farming success is based on making a profit, and if you dont, your operation isnt sustainable. Habits of growers and applicators Change is difficult and scary. Even inefficient practices can be comfortable we know how they work! What hasnt changed? Knowledge gaps: may have changed but they still existand always will Example: Does spraying a fungicide on corn
that has no disease symptoms produce an economic benefit? What hasnt changed? Knowledge gaps: may have changed but they still existand always will Yield saved by management isnt known you dont know what you prevented happening! Leaving check strips to test management effectiveness answers questions. Observing effects if you dont have test strips also can answer questions. What hasnt changed?
Knowledge gaps: may have changed but they still existand always will Trust and relevance of information sources What makes a good advisor good? Can you believe everything you hear equally? Are there ethical concerns? Just because it is in print doesnt make it correct. Summary Several factors drive decision-making on farms
Habits Aesthetics (looks) Experience Peer pressure Fears Time Environment Economics Access to information By identifying and learning about a pest, more focus can be applied to the environmental and economic considerations
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