Ozonoff Lab Infant Sibling study 1) 2) 3) Recurrence risk of autism Other developmental problems in high risk families Earliest signs of autism what, when Decrease age of identification and referral to intervention MRI study of high risk infants UC Davis UCLA Infant Sibling Study Phase I, 2003 2008 223 siblings of children with autism 124 siblings of children with typical development 6 mo
12 mo 18 mo 24 mo 36 mo 7 yrs Phase II, 2008 2013 225 siblings of children with autism 75 siblings of children with typical development Developmental Outcomes at 36 Months (UCD and UCLA) 150 At-Risk Sibs 87 Control Sibs Autism/ASD 25 17%
3 3% Other delays 38 25% 10 12% Typical development 87 58% 74 85% Recurrence Rates (Baby Siblings Research Consortium) BSRC sample
12 sites 664 high risk siblings, 338 low risk siblings Prevalence of ASD significantly elevated in high risk families 18.7% of high-risk siblings developed ASD Even higher recurrence rates in Male infants (26%) Multiplex families (32%) Sex of proband not predictive Ozonoff et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for ASD: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium study. Pediatrics, 128(3), e1-e8. ASD Outcomes by Risk Group and Infant Gender Ozonoff et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for ASD: A Baby Siblings Research
Consortium study. Pediatrics, 128(3), e1-e8. ASD Outcomes by Multiplex Status and Infant Gender Ozonoff et al. (2011). Recurrence risk for ASD: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium study. Pediatrics, 128(3), e1-e8. Other Major Findings Signs evident by 12 months in about half of affected children Most infants have a period of typical development, followed by a loss of social engagement 3 0 4 6 12 18 8
Social Engagement Rating 1 Directed Vocalizations per Minute 0 0 2 3 Social Smiles per Minute 1 Gazes to Face per Minute ASD TD ASD TD
36 6 6 12 Age (months) 12 18 18 24 Age (months) 24 30 30 36
Age (months) ASD TD 36 1 4 Clinical Implications, Future Directions Development of treatments for infants Biological and behavioral markers that identify risk BEFORE symptom onset Stability of early diagnosis Population screening for autism before age 3
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