Ice Ice Baby

Ice Ice Baby

Ice Ice Baby brought to you by Arctic Adventures Rachel, Peter, Jeffery Arctic Tundra Features of landscape Flat No trees Swampy in summer after melting of permafrost

Description of soil type Poor in nutrients, which accounts for the low amount of vegetation Vegetation Very limited Fun fact The word tundra is believed to come from the Finnish word "tunturia" which refers to a treeless plain. This feature helps define the tundra. In transition zones from other biomes, such as the taiga or coniferous forests, stunted trees and shrubs are all that grows.

Location Location Northern hemisphere: Northern Canada, parts of Alaska, southern Greenland, northern Europe, Russia, and North Pole Southern hemisphere: Isolated islands of the coast of Antarctica and the Antarctic peninsula

Climate Two seasons Winter Sun absent almost 24 hours a day Average temperature ~-28C Extremes can dip to -70C Summer Sun is present almost 24 hours a day Sun only warms up to a range of ~3C to 12C

Less than 10 inches of precipitation per year, most of this falls as snow A cold desert with dry winds Each summer, the upper layer melts just enough to create small bogs and pools. The water will not soak into the ground however, because the permafrost blocks it. In the winter these pools freeze and the cycle repeats itself. Very little moisture is lost to evaporation. Climate

Seasonal Information Best time to visit: Summer In order to view the wildlife and enjoy the biome when there is sunlight In the winter the animals migrate or go into hibernation Unique Features Limited amount of sunlight Due to the position of the sun in the sky

The sun can remain below the horizon for up to 2 months, leaving the arctic tundra in darkness However, in the summer the sun remains in the sky for 24 hours a day, it stays close to the horizon and provides only low intensity sunlight Permafrost A layer of permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost exists, consisting mostly of gravel and finer material and is constantly frozen, nothing can penetrate it because it has no cracks or pores

The active layer is the surface layer above the permafrost that thaws each summer. Pools of water form on the active layer when the snow melts and cant penetrate through the permafrost layer Native Species Plant There are about 1,700 kinds of plants in the arctic and subarctic, and these include: low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, and grasses 400 varieties of flowerscrustose and foliose lichen

Animal Herbivorous mammals: lemmings, voles, caribou, arctic hares and squirrels Carnivorous mammals: arctic foxes, wolves, and polar bears Migratory birds: ravens, snow buntings, falcons, loons, sandpipers, terns, snow birds, and various species of gulls Insects: mosquitoes, flies, moths, grasshoppers, blackflies and arctic bumble bees Fish: cod, flatfish, salmon, and trout Adaptations

Plants All of the plants are adapted to sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil. Plants are short and group together to resist the cold temperatures and are protected by the snow during the winter. They can carry out photosynthesis at low temperatures and low light intensities. The growing seasons are short and most plants reproduce by budding and division rather than sexually by flowering. Animals Animals are adapted to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise

young quickly in the summer. Animals such as mammals and birds also have additional insulation from fat. Many animals hibernate during the winter because food is not abundant. Another alternative is to migrate south in the winter, like birds do. Reptiles and amphibians are few or absent because of the extremely cold temperatures. Suggestive Tourism Activities Hiking and backpacking River floating Through the Thomsen River

Takes paddlers through a diversity of landscapes where they can see animals on its banks Wild life watching Tourists can see: grey wolves, wolverines, elk, grizzly bears, caribou, eagles, mountain goats, penguins, polar bears Significant Environmental Issues Rising global temperatures are leading to the melting of ice caps

This leads to climate loss for many species, which is making survival for these species very difficult and thus endangering these species Negative Characteristics of the Biome It is known to be a bit chilly at times and some people do not like the cold. (If you dont like cold weather, we advice against traveling here). Polar bears are known to be quite violent as well as may other animals in the Tundra, so be careful

and always travel with a guide in dangerous areas. References http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/tun dra.php http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/arctictu ndra.html http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/enviro nment/habitats/tundra-profile/

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