Hydrological Information System Module - Automatic Weather Station and Automatic Rain Gauge Anish .. Hydro-Informatics Expert The World Bank Examples that refer to products are intended for illustrative purposes only, and do not imply an endorsement or recommendation of any particular product Introduction What
is Automatic Weather Station? What Data does it provide? How and where that data is useful? Calculation of Evaporation Loss from Lakes and Reservoirs Estimation of Evapotranspiration Crop water requirement estimation Weather forecasting Temperature, pressure humidity Module Contents Network
Design Site Selection Selection of Instruments Data logger Integration of Other Sensors in AWS Telemetry Installation Sensor Specification Costs Operation and Maintenance WMO Guidelines for Minimum Network Density Region Hilly region
Minimum density in km2/gauge Non-recording (SRG) 250 Recording (ARG) 2,500 500 5,000 Plains, high rainfall region Plains, low rainfall region
Arid region 500 5,000 900 9,000 10,000 100,000 Network Density
Semi-hilly region Physical Location Site Selection Security Telemetry Window Power Options Accessibility Ownership of Land Site Selection Site Selection for Rain
Gauge Site Security Site Selection Preferably at Manned positions Research Stations of Agricultural Universities Dam and Barrage Sites Govt. Rest Houses, Circuit Houses District / Block Headquarters Private Property Police Stations ?
Site Selection Examples of Good Sites for AWS AWS in a Private Property at Site Selection Examples of Good Sites for AWS AWS on top of Bhakra Dam AWS in WRD Premises, Site Selection Examples of Good Sites
for AWS AWS in Anand Agricultural University Campus, Anand ISRO AWS inside Agricultural research Site Selection Examples of Good Sites for AWS AWS at WRD premises near Pune, Maharashtra Telemetry Window
Site Selection For Satellite Telemetry, Direct Line of Site Good Mobile Coverage for GSM based Antennae LoS Obstructed No Problem Here! Power Options Site Selection
Is Reliable AC Power available? 2-3 Hours a day enough to Recharge battery For Solar, is enough Sunlight Available? What should be size of Solar Panels What should be size of Battery? 100 AH Battery with 40 Watt Solar Panel recommended for North India 64 AH with 24-30 Watt Panels for Tropical Regions (Below 23 degree latitude) In Gujarat, 26 AH Battery with 10 W Panels also used
Internal Battery not an option for AWS Site Selection Power Options Himachal Region 100 AH Battery 40 Watt Solar Panel Site Selection Power Options Gujarat 26 AH Battery
With 10 Watt Solar Panels Selection of Sensor Rain Gauge Solar Radiation Wind Velocity and Direction Temperature Humidity Atmospheric Pressure Evaporation Selection of Instruments Automatic
Automatic Rain gauge Bucket Rain gauge Dual Reed Switch to count Bucket tips Available with or without Syphon Selection of Instruments Tipping Odisha Gujarat Maharashtr Automatic Rain gauge
Sensor Type Tipping Bucket with reed Specificatio ns switch Range 0-500 mm/h Bucket Capacity 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0 mm The size depends on Peak Rainfall Intensity 0.2 mm
0.5 mm 1.0 mm Rain and Snow Gauge Sensor Type Weight Sensor Range upto 1500 mm Snow Depth Sensor Temperature Sensor Rain
and Snow Gauge Snow Pillow Solar Radiation Silicon Selection of Instruments Photodiode based sensors Calibration depends on Solar Azimuth angle
Cheaper option Thermopile based Sensors Class 1 Equipment Expensive but more reliable option Silicon Photodiode Sensor Thermopile based Wind Velocity and Direction
Ultrasonic Sensor with no moving Selection of Instruments parts Maintenance free but expensive option One sensor provides direction and velocity Site in Gandhinagar, Gujarat Site in Brahmani, Himachal Pradesh
Wind Velocity and Direction Selection of Instruments Wind vane and Cup Anemometer Cheaper option Moving Parts, Needs frequent maintenance Site in Anand, Gujarat
Temperature and Humidity Sensor Resistance based Temperature Selection of Instruments Sensor Capacitive Humidity Sensor Often Temperature and Humidity sensors come as single hardware Atmospheric Pressure based on MEMS
Indoor unit Selection of Instruments Sensor Site in Sampli, Gujarat Site in Bhubaneswar, Odisha Site in Harsar, Himachal Pradesh General Features and Most Important part of AWS
Functions Data Logger Central Supplies Power to Sensors, Reads and record data Pass on data to telemetry unit for transmission Highly configurable based on requirements Some Models available with inbuilt GSM transmitter Some Data loggers are integral part of Sensor Data Logger
Data logger - Examples Komoline Data logger with inbuilt GSM Transmitter, Data Logger Data logger - Examples Jinyang Data logger showing input, output and communication ports, Kapla, Himachal Pradesh Data Logger Data logger - Examples Sutron Data Logger
with in built Satellite Transmitter Sutron Data Logger with inbuilt Satellite Transmitter, Display and Keypad Integration of AWS with other Sensors Integration Data Logger is the major deciding factor for feasibility of integration
With Specifications of Data Logger mentioned above, it is possible to integrate any type of station and large number of sensors Future Integration needs should be considered for deciding Data logger Specifications If no need for integration Low end Data logger If chance of adding more sensors in future High end Data logger (Expansive option) Integration Examples Installed at Nangal Dam (Punjab) along with Integration
AWS Reservoir Water Level Outflow Canal Water Level Connectivity via wires for Dam level and Canal A Wireless connectivity with Canal B Integration Integration Examples Integration
at Bhuntar on Beas River with River Gauge site using bubbler River Discharge site using ADCP Integration Integration Examples Integration at Anand, Gujarat with Soil Moisture Probe Leaf Wetness Sensor Groundwater Level Sensor
Introduction telemetry Device transmits data to central server location Can provide One-Way or Two Way Communication Telemetry The One Way Push method Two Way Push and Pull Method The communication medium can be: GSM Towers
Satellites INSAT Radio Transmitter VSAT GSM Based Telemetry The Telemetry device has SIM Telemetry card Can transmit via SMS or GPRS internet Telemetry Device can be:
Integral part of Data logger Separate Device Telemetry Satellite Based Telemetry VSAT based two way communication INSAT based one way communication Finer Details of Telemetry are covered in
Masts Installation Masts should be Sturdy, rust proof Installed on good concrete foundation Should not vibrate with wind Installation Solar Panels
What is wrong here? Solar Panel in Shadow of Trees Installation Solar Panels Chitkul, Himachal Pradesh Anand, Gujarat Installation
Solar Panel Almost Vertical in Himachal Almost Horizontal in Gujarat What should be Right Direction? What is major difference in solar Panel Solar Panel - Direction Installation In
Northern Hemisphere, Solar Panel always faces South This maximizes sunlight, specially during winter The tilt angle w.r.t. ground should be equal to Latitude of Location Horizontal (0 degree tilt) at Equator 30-35 degree for northern states Installation Connections and Wires Label the Connection wires if feasible Automatic Rain gauge
Accuracy (Intensity) 2 % or better Output Interface As specified in Data logger Rain collector Material Corrosion Resistance Metal (Stainless steel/ Aluminum) or UV Stabilized Fiber Plastic Specificatio ns Enclosure All IP65
openings of the rain gauge shall be covered with a screen to protect against insects Syphon system to eliminate over accumulation or under accumulation of precipitation collecting funnel diameter 200mm Ability to service tipping buckets without involving the re-levelling of the gauge Specificatio ns Automatic Rain gauge Raingauge with UV Stabilized Fibre Plastic Leveling
Mechanism Raingauge with Stainless Steel Body Feature Site Conditions Ambient Temperature Humidity Altitude Sensor Sensor Type Range Resolution Accuracy General Features Output Interface
Power Supply Material Enclosure Tools Manuals Accessories Units From -20 to +60 5 to 100 % 0 to 5000 meter Ultrasonic sensor 0-10 meter 1 mm or better 0.25 % of measuring distance SDI12/ RS 485 / Compatible with Data logger 9-18 V DC
Corrosion Resistance Metal (Stainless steel/ Aluminum or PVC) NEMA 4 Complete tool kit for operation and routine maintenance Full Documentation and maintenance manual in English Sensor Mounting support, cables and other accessories as required Solar Radiation Sensor Option 1 Type Silicon Photovoltaic Spectral Range 400-3000 nm Range 0-2000 W/m2 Resolution 1 W/m2 Accuracy
Specificatio ns Sensor 5% Including Temperature Compensation Response time 10 Sec or better Output Interface As specified in Data logger Solar Radiation Sensor Option 2
Sensor Type Pyranometer (CMP 11 or better) Classification ISO Class I Spectral Range 300-3000 nm Range 0-2000 W/m2 Resolution 1 W/m2 Accuracy Specificatio ns ISO
3% Including Temp Compensation Response time 10 Sec or better Output Interface As specified in Data logger Wind Velocity and Direction Option -1 Sensor Type Ultrasonic sensor (No moving Parts)
Specificatio ns Range 65m/s for speed 0360 degrees for direction Resolution 0.01 m/s for speed 0.1 degree for direction Accuracy 0.2m/s or 3% for speed +/- 2 degrees for direction
Output Interface As specified in Data logger Wind Velocity and Direction Option -2 Specificatio ns
Sensor Type Non Contact encoders with cup anemometer and wind vane Range 0.3 to 65m/s for speed 0360 degrees for direction Resolution 0.01 m/s for speed 0.1 degree for direction Accuracy 0. 4 m/s for speed +/- 5 degrees for direction
Output Interface As specified in Data logger Temperature Sensor Sensor Type Resistance type Temperature Sensor Specificatio ns Range -40 to60 Degree C
Resolution 0.1C Accuracy 0.3C or better Output Interface As specified in Data logger Humidity Sensor
Sensor Type Capacitive/ Solid State Humidity Sensor Specificatio ns Range 5 to 100 % Resolution 0.5%
Accuracy 3% or better Output Interface As specified in Data logger Atmospheric Pressure Sensor Sensor Type Temperature Compensated
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