These are a group of specialized proteins that contain heme and globin. Heme is the prosthetic part and globin is the protein part. 97% is the globin part and the rest 3% is the heme part.

GLOBULAR HEME PROTEINS Role of heme group is dictated by the environment. Examples:

a. Cytochromes b. Catalase c. Hemoglobin d. Myoglobin HEMOGLOBIN Hemoglobin is the protein that carries

oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carries carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.. The oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin was discovered in 1840.

Hemoglobin's reversible oxygenation was described a few years later. In 1959 Max Perutz determined the molecular structure of hemoglobin by X-ray crystallography. This work resulted

in his sharing with John Kendrew the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. STRUCTURE OF HEMOGLOBIN

Hemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains: Two alpha chains, each with 141 amino acids and Two beta chains, each with 146 amino acids.

Both the and globin chains contain primarily helix secondary structure with no sheets.

Each or globin chain folds into 8 helical segments (A-H) which, in turn, fold to form globular tertiary structures. The folded helices form a pocket that holds the working part of each chain, the heme.

The alpha and beta subunits of the globin chains exist in two dimers which are bonded together strongly. Thus Hb is a tetramer composed of two identical dimers ()1 ()2 . Quaternary structure of Hb

Polypeptides of and chain are held together by hydrophobic interactions. Polypeptides between dimers are held by ionic and hydrogen bonds.

PORPHYRIN METABOLISM Porphyrins are cyclic compounds. They bind metal ions, mostly Fe2+ or Fe 3+

The most prevalent metalloporphyrin in humans is Heme. Heme is the prosthetic group for myoglobin, hemoglobin , cytochromes, catalase and tryptophan pyrrolase. Heme consists of one ferrous ion in the

center of a tetrapyrrole ring of protoporphyrin IX. Structure of Porphyrins These are cyclic molecules. Formed by the linkage of four tetrapyrrole rings, through methenyl bridges. Structural Features: 1. Side chains- All the porphyrins vary in

the nature of their side chains that are attached to their pyrrole rings.e.g. Uroporphyrin- acetate and propionate

Coproporphyrin- methyl and propionate Protoporphyrin IX- vinyl, methyl and propionate 2. The side chains can be ordered in four different ways, designated as I- IV. Only Type III porphyrins are physiologically important. They have an asymmetric distribution. e.g.

AP, AP,AP, AP- Type I AP, AP, PA, AP- Type III 3. Porphyrinogens : These are the precursors of porphyrins. They are colorless. STEPS OF SYNTHESIS OF HEME

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Major Sites:

Liver (heme proteins- cytochromes) (fluctuating) Bone marrow (RBC)(constant). Initial and the last three steps occur in the mitochondria Intermediate steps in the cytosol. RBCs have no mitochondria, unable to synthesize heme.

Glycine + succinyl CoA -aminolevulinic acid(ALA)aminolevulinic acid(ALA) Enzyme: Mitochondrial enzyme -aminolevulinic acid(ALA)aminolevulinate synthase Hemin, Heme

Reaction requires pyridoxal phosphate as a co- enzyme. It is the rate limiting step Inhibited by end product hemin(heme). Drugs such as phenobarbitol, griseofulvin

or hydantoin- increase the activity of ALA synthase. These drugs are metabolized by microsomal cytochromes -aminolevulinic acid(ALA)aminolevulinic acid(ALA) (2 mol condense)

Porphobilinogen Enzyme: -aminolevulinic acid(ALA)aminolevulinic acid dehydratase Lead Porphobilinogen( 4 molecules condense) Hydroxymethylbilane Enzyme: Hydroxymethylbilane synthase

Hydroxymethylbilane (ring closure and isomerization) Uroporphyrinogen III Enzyme- Uroporphyrinogen III synthase Uroporphyrinogen III

Coporphyrinogens III Enzyme: Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase Coporphyrinogens III Protoporphyrinogen IX Enzyme: Coporphyrinogens Oxidase

Protoporphyrinogen IX Protoporphyrin IX Enzyme: Protoporphyrinogen oxidase Protoporphyrin IX

Heme Enzyme: Ferrochelatase Types in humans In the embryo: Gower 1 ( ) 2 2 Gower 2 ( )

2 2 Hemoglobin Portland ( ) 2 2 In the fetus: Hemoglobin F ( ) 2 2 In adults:

Hemoglobin A ( ) - The most common 2 2 with a normal amount over 95% Hemoglobin A ( ) - chain synthesis 2 2 2 begins late in the third trimester and in adults, it has a normal range of 1.5-3.5% Hemoglobin F ( ) - In adults Hemoglobin F

2 2 is restricted to a limited population of red cells called F-cells. However, the level of Hb F can be elevated in persons with sickle-cell disease.

Hemoglobin C (2C2) - Another variant due to a variation in the -chain gene. This variant causes a mild chronic hemolytic anemia. Hemoglobin E (2E2) - Another variant due to a variation in the -chain gene. This variant causes a mild chronic hemolytic anemia.

Variant forms which cause disease: Hemoglobin H ( ) - A variant form of 4 hemoglobin, formed by a tetramer of chains, which may be present in variants of thalassemia. Hemoglobin Barts ( ) - A variant form of 4

hemoglobin, formed by a tetramer of chains, which may be present in variants of thalassemia. Hemoglobin S (2S2) - A variant form of hemoglobin found in people with sickle cell disease. There is a variation in

the -chain gene, causing a change in the properties of hemoglobin which results in sickling of red blood cells. Hemoglobin AS - A heterozygous form causing Sickle cell trait with one adult gene and one sickle cell disease gene

Hemoglobin SC disease - Another heterozygous form with one sickle gene and another encoding Hemoglobin C.

In diabetics whose glucose usually runs high, the percent Hb A1c also runs high. Because of the slow rate of Hb A combination with glucose, the Hb A1c percentage is representative of glucose level in the blood averaged over a longer time (the half-life of red blood cells, which is typically 5055 days).

The levels of glycosylated hemoglobin are tested to monitor the long-term control of the chronic disease of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2 DM). Poor control of Type2 DM results in high levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in the red blood cells.

The normal reference range is approximately 4 %5.9 %. Though difficult to obtain, values less than 7 % are recommended for people with Type 2 DM. Levels greater than 9 % are associated with poor control of diabetes

and levels greater than 12 % are associated with very poor control. Diabetics who keep their glycosylated hemoglobin levels close to 7 % have a much better chance of avoiding the complications that can sometimes

accompany diabetes (than those whose levels are 8 % or higher). Diagnostic uses Hemoglobin concentration measurement is among the most commonly performed blood tests, usually as part of a

complete blood count. Learning Resources Lippincott's Biochemistry Lecture notes

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Million Father March - IN.gov

    Million Father March - IN.gov

    Million Father March. such that the entire county school system participates in this annual . Million Father March. tradition. In 2011, more than 38,000 fathers in Broward County participated in the . Million Father March, according to the Sun Sentinel,...


    Naturally occurring magnets, lodestones, had two ends that would attract or repel other lodestones. Lodestones (if friction is eliminated) naturally orient themselves toward Earth's poles. The ends of the lodestone are traditionally called North and South, depending on which geographic...
  • Epistle To The Philippians The Look Out! Look

    Epistle To The Philippians The Look Out! Look

    Matthew 7:6 -- "Do not give what is holy to dogs, and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces." Think hyena rather than Fido.
  • Genigraphics Research Poster Template A0/A1

    Genigraphics Research Poster Template A0/A1

    Dinosaur tracks from Peace River, British Columbia. National Museum of Canada Bulletin, 68: 59-85. ... This template is designed to use the built-in color themes in the newer versions of PowerPoint. To change the color theme, select the . Design.
  • Physical Quantities and Units - UMass D

    Physical Quantities and Units - UMass D

    A tractor-trailer truck is traveling at 60 miles per hour eastbound on Interstate 195 towards the North Dartmouth exit. Determine the speed of the truck i.) in feet per second ii.) in meters per second iii.) in kilometers per hour....
  • Interactions in regression models: An introduction

    Interactions in regression models: An introduction

    Specification errors for interaction models: Implications for the shape of the overall pattern Jane E. Miller, PhD The Chicago Guide to Writing about Multivariate Analysis, 2nd Edition.
  • The easy way to divide! 72  4 18

    The easy way to divide! 72 4 18

    The easy way to divide! 72 ÷ 4 = 4 72 we know 10 x 4 40 32 we know 8 x 4 32 0 18 18 We highlight the times table we are using. We circle the number of...
  • Job Letter Conventions Getting a Job in the

    Job Letter Conventions Getting a Job in the

    Job Letter Conventions Getting a Job in the Real World The Job Letter Gives you a chance to present yourself in narrative form a format that lets you clarify and add details that don't fit into a traditional résumé Not...