# Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations

S-271 Helicopter Crewmember UNIT 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-1 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Unit 5 - Objectives 1. Describe general aspects of helicopter design, flight controls, and terminology. 2. Define in-ground-effect and out-ofground-effect as they relate to helicopter performance. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-2 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Unit 5 - Objectives 3. Describe air density altitude and the effects

on helicopter performance. 4. Describe the process for completing a load calculation form. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-3 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Rotor Systems Single-Rotor Helicopter - The most common design uses a single main rotor which imparts lift and thrust, and a smaller tail rotor, which compensates for torque induced by the powered turning of the main rotor. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-4 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Rotor Systems Dual-Rotor Helicopter Some helicopters have dual main rotors, mounted in tandem or side-by-side.

Torque compensation is achieved by turning the rotors in opposite directions. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-5 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Helicopter Controls There are four controls that are used in conjunction with each other when flying a helicopter. - Collective pitch control - Throttle control - Anti-torque - Cyclic control Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-6 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design

Helicopter Controls Collective Control This changes the angle of the pitch (of angle of attack) of each main rotor blade simultaneously. The collective is controlled by the left hand. As the pitch of the blades is increased, lift is created causing the helicopter to rise from the ground, hover or climb, as long as sufficient power is available. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-7 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Helicopter Controls Throttle Control On the turbine-powered helicopters, this power coordination is accomplished automatically through the fuel control and governor systems of the turbine engine. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-8

S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Helicopter Controls Anti-Torque Control Two anti-torque pedals are provided to counteract the torque effect of the main rotor. This is done by increasing or decreasing the thrust of the tail rotor. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-9 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Helicopter Controls Anti-Torque Control The anti-torque pedals accomplish this by changing the pitch (angle of attack) or the tail rotor blades. Unit 5

Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-10 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Helicopter Controls Anti-Torque Control Heading and directional control in hover and at low air speeds as forward air speed increases, the tail rotor becomes less necessary (slip streaming effect). Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-11 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Helicopter Controls Cyclic Control The cyclic is controlled by the pilots right hand. Aircraft moves in the direction that pressure is applied to the cyclic.

If the pilot moves the cyclic forward, the lift in the rear half of the rotor disk is increased, and the aircraft moves forward. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-12 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Landing Gear Skids Skids are the most common type of landing gear used in light and medium-class helicopters. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-13 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Landing Gear Wheels Wheels are primarily used on medium and heavy helicopters.

Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-14 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Basic Helicopter Design Landing Gear Floats Floats can be used on land as well as water. There are two types; fixed or inflated. Pop Outs are inflated only as needed. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-15 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Helicopter Loading Center of Gravity Effects Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations

Slide 5-16 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Helicopter Loading Center of Gravity Effects Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-17 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Performance Helicopter Loading Floor Loading Careful attention must be given to small, heavy parcels loaded into helicopters to determine that the maximum pounds-persquare-inch limitations are not exceeded. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-18 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember

Principles of Flight Being familiar with terms commonly used in helicopter flight characteristics is important to persons involved with helicopter use. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-19 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Ground Effect A condition of improved rotor system performance encountered when the helicopter is hovering near the ground. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-20 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Hover-In-Ground-Effect (HIGE) occurs when helicopter is hovering approximately less than one-half the rotor diameter distance

from the ground. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-21 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember HIGE the airflow is interrupted by the ground under the helicopter; this reduces downward velocity of the air and produces an outward airflow pattern. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-22 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Hover-Out-Of-Ground-Effect (HOGE) occurs when the helicopter exceeds about one-half of the rotor diameter distance from the ground, and the cushion of air disintegrates. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations

Slide 5-23 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember HOGE no cushion of air and maximum performance of helicopter is required. Payload may have to be reduced. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-24 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Ground Effect Hover-Out-Of-GroundEffect (HOGE) It is important to understand the capabilities and limitations presented by ground effect when choosing a landing site Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-25 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember

Principles of Flight Ground Effect Translational Lift Translational lift occurs when the helicopter approaches 15 to 18 MPH indicated airspeed and when hovering with a 15 MPH steady headwind. Can be felt as an aircraft transitions from a hover to forward flight. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-26 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Autorotation Autorotation is a non-powered flight condition in which the rotor system maintains flight RPM by reversed airflow. It provides the pilot a means of safely landing the helicopter after an engine failure or other mechanical emergency. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-27 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember

Principles of Flight Autorotation Helicopters have a freewheeling unit in the transmission which automatically disengages the engine from the rotor system in the event of failure. This allows the main rotor to rotate freely. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-28 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Autorotation When the helicopter is powered by the engine, airflow is downward through the rotors. During an autorotation airflow is upward, wind milling the rotor blades as the helicopter descends. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-29

S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Height Velocity Diagram In flight manuals for each helicopter types is a chart which provides necessary information to complete a safe autorotation. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-30 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Maximum Performance Takeoff Occurs when the helicopter HOGE before or after translational lift. The helicopter is totally power dependent and the margin for safety is significantly reduced. Unit 5

Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-31 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-32 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Maximum Performance Takeoff When possible, avoid confined areas, or large obstructions that require the pilot to use maximum power for extended periods. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-33 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Density Altitude

Density altitude refers to a theoretical air density which exists under standard conditions of a given altitude. By definition, density altitude is pressure altitude corrected for temperature and humidity. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-34 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Density Altitude Can have a profound effect on aircraft performance. Air, like other gases and liquids, is fluid. It flows and changes shape under pressure. Air is said to be thin at higher elevations. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-35 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight

Density Altitude There are more air molecules per cubic foot at sea level feet than at 8,500 feet. As density altitude increases, air thins out and aircraft performance decreases. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-36 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Density Altitude There are three factors that affect density altitude in varying degrees; atmospheric pressure, temperature, and to some degree, humidity. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-37 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember

Principles of Flight Density Altitude Chart Exercise - Density Altitude Chart Density altitude affects helicopter performance. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-38 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember 8400 ft. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations 8400 ft. Slide 5-39 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight Density Altitude Effects Performance High elevation, high temperature, and high moisture content all contribute to high density altitude conditions and lessen performance.

Performance is reduced because the thinner air at high density altitudes reduces blade efficiency. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-40 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight At sea level the cool, dense air provides optimum helicopter performance. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-41 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Principles of Flight But at higher altitude, or hotter conditions, the air is less dense and performance is significantly reduced. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations

Slide 5-42 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations Load Calculation Form One of the most important documents you will need to become familiar with is the Load Calculation Form. For a helicopter to fly safely it is critical that you obtain an allowable payload from the Load Calculation form. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-43 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations The AMD-67 and FS-5700-17 load calculation is required for all helicopter flights conducted on interagency fires and project work. Any 5 degree C change in outside air temperature or any 1,000 pressure altitude feet change, a new load calculation will need to be completed to ensure safe operations. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations

Slide 5-44 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations Many accidents have happened that involved aircraft that were operating in conditions that were too high or too hot for the weight of the aircraft. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-45 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember INTERAGENCY HELICOPTER LOAD CALCULATION Electronic Version (12/03) MODEL Bell 407 N# 123WH PILOT(S)

Bo Duke DATE MISSION Initial Attack TIME 1 DEPARTURE Helibase PA 4000 OAT 25 2 DESTINATION Helispot PA 6000

OAT 20 2911 3 HELICOPTER EQUIPPED WEIGHT 206 4 FLIGHT CREW WEIGHT 5 FUEL WEIGHT 50 gals X 7 350 lbs/gal 3467 6 OPERATING WEIGHT (3 + 4 + 5) Non-Jettisonable HIGE 7a PERFORMANCE REFERENCE (List chart/supplement from Flight Manual)

7b COMPUTED GROSS WEIGHT (From Flight Manual Performance Section) 8 WEIGHT REDUCTION (Required for all Non-Jettisonable loads) 9 ADJUSTED WEIGHT (7b minus 8) 10 GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATION (From Flight Manual Limitations Section) 11 SELECTED WEIGHT (Lowest of 9 or 10) 12 OPERATING WEIGHT (From Line 6) 13 ALLOWABLE PAYLOAD (11 minus 12) HOGE Jettisonable HOGE- J FMS 3 4-2 FMS 3 4-4 FMS 3 4-4 5000

5000 5075 155 155 0 4845 4845 5075 5000 5000 5500 4845 4845 5075 3467 3467

3467 1378 1378 1608 14 PASSENGERS/CARGO 15 ACTUAL PAYLOAD (Total of all weights listed in Item 14) Line 15 must not exceed Line 13 for the intended mission (HIGE, HOGE or HOGE-J) Unit 5 0 PILOT SIGNATURE HazMat Onboard MANAGER SIGNATURE Yes Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations No

Slide 5-46 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations INTERAGENCY HELICOPTER LOAD CALCULATION Electronic Version (12/03) MODEL Bell 407 N# 123WH PILOT(S) Bo Duke DATE MISSION Initial Attack TIME 1 DEPARTURE

Helibase PA 4000 OAT 25 2 DESTINATION Helispot PA 6000 OAT 20 2911 3 HELICOPTER EQUIPPED WEIGHT 206 4 FLIGHT CREW WEIGHT 5 FUEL WEIGHT

50 gals X 7 350 lbs/gal 3467 6 OPERATING WEIGHT (3 + 4 + 5) Non-Jettisonable HIGE 7a PERFORMANCE REFERENCE (List chart/supplement from Flight Manual) 7b COMPUTED GROSS WEIGHT (From Flight Manual Performance Section) 8 WEIGHT REDUCTION (Required for all Non-Jettisonable loads) 9 ADJUSTED WEIGHT (7b minus 8) 10 GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATION (From Flight Manual Limitations Section)

11 SELECTED WEIGHT (Lowest of 9 or 10) 12 OPERATING WEIGHT (From Line 6) 13 ALLOWABLE PAYLOAD (11 minus 12) HOGE Jettisonable HOGE- J FMS 3 4-2 FMS 3 4-4 FMS 3 4-4 5000 5000 155 155 5075 0 4845 4845

5075 5000 5000 5500 4845 4845 5075 3467 3467 3467 1378 1378 1608

Aircraft model N Number Mission Date/Time Departure Destination 14 PASSENGERS/CARGO 15 ACTUAL PAYLOAD (Total of all weights listed in Item 14) Line 15 must not exceed Line 13 for the intended mission (HIGE, HOGE or HOGE-J) Unit 5 0 PILOT SIGNATURE HazMat Onboard MANAGER SIGNATURE Yes No

Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-47 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations INTERAGENCY HELICOPTER LOAD CALCULATION Electronic Version (12/03) MODEL Bell 407 N# 123WH PILOT(S) Bo Duke DATE MISSION Initial Attack TIME

1 DEPARTURE Helibase PA 4000 OAT 25 2 DESTINATION Helispot PA 6000 OAT 20 2911 3 HELICOPTER EQUIPPED WEIGHT 206 4 FLIGHT CREW WEIGHT

5 FUEL WEIGHT 50 gals X 7 350 lbs/gal 3467 6 OPERATING WEIGHT (3 + 4 + 5) Non-Jettisonable HIGE 7a PERFORMANCE REFERENCE (List chart/supplement from Flight Manual) 7b COMPUTED GROSS WEIGHT (From Flight Manual Performance Section) 8 WEIGHT REDUCTION (Required for all Non-Jettisonable loads) 9 ADJUSTED WEIGHT (7b minus 8) 10 GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATION

(From Flight Manual Limitations Section) 11 SELECTED WEIGHT (Lowest of 9 or 10) 12 OPERATING WEIGHT (From Line 6) 13 ALLOWABLE PAYLOAD (11 minus 12) HOGE Jettisonable HOGE- J FMS 3 4-2 FMS 3 4-4 FMS 3 4-4 5000 5000 155 155 5075 0 4845

4845 5075 5000 5000 5500 4845 4845 5075 3467 3467 3467 1378 1378 1608 Helicopter equipped weight + Flight crew weight +

Fuel weight = Operating weight 14 PASSENGERS/CARGO 15 ACTUAL PAYLOAD (Total of all weights listed in Item 14) Line 15 must not exceed Line 13 for the intended mission (HIGE, HOGE or HOGE-J) Unit 5 0 PILOT SIGNATURE HazMat Onboard MANAGER SIGNATURE Yes No Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-48 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations

INTERAGENCY HELICOPTER LOAD CALCULATION Electronic Version (12/03) MODEL Bell 407 N# 123WH PILOT(S) Bo Duke DATE MISSION Initial Attack TIME 1 DEPARTURE Helibase PA 4000

OAT 25 2 DESTINATION Helispot PA 6000 OAT 20 2911 3 HELICOPTER EQUIPPED WEIGHT 206 4 FLIGHT CREW WEIGHT 5 FUEL WEIGHT 50 gals X 7

350 lbs/gal 3467 6 OPERATING WEIGHT (3 + 4 + 5) Non-Jettisonable HIGE 7a PERFORMANCE REFERENCE (List chart/supplement from Flight Manual) 7b COMPUTED GROSS WEIGHT (From Flight Manual Performance Section) 8 WEIGHT REDUCTION (Required for all Non-Jettisonable loads) 9 ADJUSTED WEIGHT (7b minus 8) 10 GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATION (From Flight Manual Limitations Section) 11 SELECTED WEIGHT (Lowest of 9 or 10) 12 OPERATING WEIGHT (From Line 6)

13 ALLOWABLE PAYLOAD (11 minus 12) HOGE Jettisonable HOGE- J FMS 3 4-2 FMS 3 4-4 FMS 3 4-4 5000 5000 155 155 5075 0 4845 4845 5075 5000 5000

5500 4845 4845 5075 3467 3467 3467 1378 1378 1608 14 PASSENGERS/CARGO 15 ACTUAL PAYLOAD (Total of all weights listed in Item 14) Line 15 must not exceed Line 13 for the intended mission (HIGE, HOGE or HOGE-J) Unit 5 0

PILOT SIGNATURE HazMat Onboard MANAGER SIGNATURE Yes Performance reference Computed gross weight Weight reduction Adjusted weight Gross weight limitation Selected weight Operating weight Allowable payload No Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations

Slide 5-49 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Helicopter Load Calculations INTERAGENCY HELICOPTER LOAD CALCULATION Electronic Version (12/03) MODEL Bell 407 N# 123WH PILOT(S) Bo Duke DATE MISSION Initial Attack TIME 1 DEPARTURE

Helibase PA 4000 OAT 25 2 DESTINATION Helispot PA 6000 OAT 20 2911 3 HELICOPTER EQUIPPED WEIGHT 206 4 FLIGHT CREW WEIGHT 5 FUEL WEIGHT

50 gals X 7 350 lbs/gal 3467 6 OPERATING WEIGHT (3 + 4 + 5) Non-Jettisonable HIGE 7a PERFORMANCE REFERENCE (List chart/supplement from Flight Manual) 7b COMPUTED GROSS WEIGHT (From Flight Manual Performance Section) 8 WEIGHT REDUCTION (Required for all Non-Jettisonable loads) 9 ADJUSTED WEIGHT (7b minus 8) 10 GROSS WEIGHT LIMITATION (From Flight Manual Limitations Section)

11 SELECTED WEIGHT (Lowest of 9 or 10) 12 OPERATING WEIGHT (From Line 6) 13 ALLOWABLE PAYLOAD (11 minus 12) HOGE Jettisonable HOGE- J FMS 3 4-2 FMS 3 4-4 FMS 3 4-4 5000 5000 155 155 5075 0 4845 4845

5075 5000 5000 5500 4845 4845 5075 3467 3467 3467 1378 1378 1608

Passengers and cargo Actual payload Pilot signature Manager signature HazMat 14 PASSENGERS/CARGO 15 ACTUAL PAYLOAD (Total of all weights listed in Item 14) Line 15 must not exceed Line 13 for the intended mission (HIGE, HOGE or HOGE-J) Unit 5 0 PILOT SIGNATURE HazMat Onboard MANAGER SIGNATURE Yes No Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-50

S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Unit 5 - Objectives 1. Describe general aspects of helicopter design, flight controls, and terminology. 2. Define in-ground-effect and out-ofground-effect as they relate to helicopter performance. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-51 S-271 Helicopter Crewmember Unit 5 - Objectives 3. Describe air density altitude and the effects on helicopter performance. 4. Describe the process for completing a load calculation form. Unit 5 Helicopter Performance, Limitations, and Load Calculations Slide 5-52

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