Harvard (Author Date) referencing Why Reference? To To To To
avoid plagiarism. show your research help the reader find the sources used help you find a source again There are two parts to referencing
In-text citation Reference list (Bibliography) In-text citation In-text citations are needed when you quote
or paraphrase an author. Harvard Referencing uses the author-date system Referencing quotes Quotes are referenced in-text using the following
format: (Authors last name Year of publication, Page number/s) You may use the authors name in a sentence, omitting it from the brackets. For example: Evans (2003, p. 157) states that
Examples of short quotations A short quote will be written as follows. According to Evans (2003, p. 60), The lessons of 25 April had gone unlearned." Another way to write a quote could look like this. The invasion of the Suvla Bay area was characterized by a lack of energy . . . (Evans 2003, p. 127). The quote used here is not the
full sentence, so no full stop has been used within the quotation marks. Example of a longer quotation A longer quote is one that is two or more sentences long. I this case the quote is formatted differently. The quote is indented (left and right margins) and a smaller font is used. "Get ready for university study introduces some of the key
skills needed for successful university-level study . . .the resource benefits a wide audience, from school-leavers, new and potential students, to postgraduates, professionals and others." (Smith 2008, p. 60-61) After the quote, standard font size and margins are used to continue with the essay.
Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is presenting the ideas or information of others using your own words. Quotation marks are not used, and there is no change to the layout. Remember, page numbers are not included. Examples
Although the materials were originally developed for a comparatively small user group, many others have also found them useful. (Smith, 2008). According to Smith (2008), although the materials were originally developed for a comparatively small user group, many others have also found them useful. Footnotes
Although footnotes are not a part of the Harvard Reference system, they can be used to provide extra information. They must not be used to provide the reference to the source of the material.1 Footnotes are not included in the word count. 1
Your teacher may allow you to use footnotes for in-text referencing Interviews, emails & letters Information used from personal communication also needs to be referenced in
text. It will not be put in the reference list. The format is: Name of interviewee, Year, Per. Comm., day and Month e.g. (T Hogan, 2015, Per. Comm., 22 March) Note: Initial comes before surname when referencing personal communication.
The Reference list The reference list gives full details of sources you have referenced in your text A bibliography gives full details of sources you used in your research, but didnt reference in your text
The bibliography is put at the end of the essay. References are put in alphabetical order Books are to be referenced as follows A uthor, Year, Title of Book, Publisher, Place Published note the punctuation and italics; these are conventions and can change slightly as referencing guides are updated.
Example, book with one author: Ross, H 2000, Black Pioneers, Penguin, Victoria. Use the same name format (surname, initial) for books with 2 authors. For more than 2 authors, use the first authors name followed by et al. which is Latin for and others Websites are referenced in the format shown bellow
A uthor/ Organisation, Year, Title of W eb Page, Date A ccessed, URL (W eb A ddress) Example, a webpage with an author: If you cant determine the author of the web page, cite in this format Title of W eb Page, Year, Date A ccessed, URL (Web A ddress with no author)
Time to put it all into practice! Write a bibliographic reference for the following: Heres how it should look. Cameron, A.D, 1981, Exploring History: Young Workers in the Industrial Revolution, Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.
The next excerpt is from the same book. You need to write: One short quote One long quote One paraphrased section
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