Mediterranean Basin: Greco-Roman Civilization Ancient Ancient .Greece: Located among mountains and hills, surrounded by Mediterranean Sea and limited rich soil
Influence of geography on history Rome: Located next to a river; city built on many hills; limited rich soil; focal point for an empire
Greece and Rome Continuities Changes Democracies Greek culture Columns and engineering Controlled the Mediterranean Golden Ages Polytheistic Former colonies of each other Great militaries (army and navies) Both held colonies Merchants important Large slave population
Patriarchal Statuary Pantheon vs Parthenon Centralized vs decentralized Roman Empire larger Republic vs Direct Democracy Latin vs Greek Christianity (Rome and Constantine) Silk road for Roman trade Extended citizenship to conquered subjects Roman fell to nomadic barbarians Roman Roads
From 600 B.C.E-600 C.E in the Classical Mediterranean, The role of civic participation in government would Continue from Athenian to Roman democracy, the Mediterranean would serve as a conduit of goods And ideas, however, the introduction of Christianity By Roman Emperor Constantine would change the Religious Ideology for countless souls throughout The Mediterranean region Or just a snapshot The classical age in the Mediterranean saw the decline and fall of the Greek Poleis And the rise of Alexanders Macedonian Empire. The traditionally Greek (Hellenic) Culture became intermingled with Persian, Egyptian and Indian cultures (Hellenistic). The polytheistic religion, however, of the Mediterranean would remain solidly intact
From 600 B.C.E-600 C.E in the Mediterranean, the Greek polis of Athens developed from a monarchy to a aristocracy To eventually a direct democracy under the leadership of Pericles, the Addition of vowels to the Phoenician alphabet Made a more literate and educated society under the love of wisdom (philosophy) however the need to develop colonies Surrounding the Mediterranean remained an essential for the need of resources and trading items Alexander the Great from 600 B.C.E-600 C.E extended the Mediterranean Empires East by combining the Greek Indian, Persian and Egyptian Cultures ( Hellenistic), the importance of trade amongst the Mediterranean colonies as Well as the importance of polytheistic deities all remained essential to explain the daily activities. In the Mediterranean region 600 B.C.E- 600 C.E, Rome developed from a monarchy to a republic and eventually an Empire, the polytheistic deities which guided Roman Emperors lost their importance to many lower classes to the Burgeoning religion of Christianity, yet, the importance of a well-trained military for protection and building would See Rome through a Pax. The Mediterranean from 600 B.C.E-600 C.E would see various experiments with democratic principles from direct to Representative democracy, the struggle for predominance in the region would vacillate between Greek, Hellenistic and
Roman militaries through a variety of wars (Persian,Pelloponesian, Punic) however the run of Empire building through \ Dynamic naval forces would continue. Social Studies SOL 3.1 The student will explain how the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome have influenced the present world in terms of architecture, government (direct and representative democracy), and sports. . I. From 600 B.C.E-600 C.E in the Mediterranean the evolution and experiment with democratic values would still see the consolidation of one ruler, trade and conflict over Mediterranean colonies would continue, however, new belief systems like Christianity would challenged the order of earlier polytheistic deities. Although Athens would extend a
direct democracy and Rome would become a republic, the need to protect the masses and maintain law and order during wars and invasions would see the rise of monarchs like Alexander of Macedonia and Augustus Caesar Since the resources and colonies around the Mediterranean like Cairo, Carthage,, Athens, Syracuse were rich in ore, agricultural products and dyes and perfumes wars like the Persian, Peloponnesian and Punic were fought to maintain hegemony
( dominance) Although the traditional beliefs of Gods of Sun (Apollo), Sea( Poseidon/ Neptune) and Chief Gods ( Zeus/Jupiter) , the increasing appeal of Christianity amongst the poor and nomads and its subsequent persecution and disorder, led Constantine to legalize it ( Edict of Milan) and universalize it ( Council of Nicaea) to which its spread along routes and maritime trade routes People generally bend to the will of a
strongman when threatened during times of uncertainty and chaos where order will trump rights. The Empires of Greece, Macedonia, and Rome developed strong navies for the purpose of collecting tariffs, establish their dominance and balancing their budgets to maintain empire. While state-sponsorship of belief systems helped to maintain the status quo, the appeal of Christianity to the
masses and the promise of salvation for adherents led to the mass appeal and increase of Christianity as a universalizing religion. The ancient Greeks and Romans have influenced the lives of people today.
Direct democracy: a government in which people vote to make their own rules and laws Representative democracy: a government in which people vote for (elect) a smaller group of citizens to make their rules and laws for everyone Republic system of government in which representatives are chosen by the people. It is a form of democracy Rule of law - government by law. The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure.
Classical Greece emerged ca. 750 BCE, flourished for about 400 years Distinctiveness of Hellenic civilization City-states (POLIS) political units made up of a city & surrounding lands, shared common language and common gods Each polis had a distinct form of government Colonization around Mediterranean basin
and Black Sea How did the geography of Greece present obstacles to a unified Greek country? Popular participation in political life of city-states (polis) Equality of all citizens before law Extent of citizenship varied by time period & city Only wealthy and well-born at first Gradually expanded to middle- & lower-class men Element was ability to afford armor & weapons to fight as hoplites
Tyrants (dictators) emerged in many areas, supported by poorer classes against the rich Athens Sparta Government: Limited democracy (only male citizens could participate), Council of 500 which made the laws, voting Assembly. Soldiers: Citizen soldiers - only during wartime Slaves:
No political rights or freedoms. Owned by individuals Women: Cared for the home, limited political rights. Education: Upper class boys only. Military training and preparation for government involvement. Knowledge was important for a democratic government. Government: Two kings (military generals)
and a council of elders. Citizens were male, native born, over 30. Soldiers: Military society, all males prepared to be soldiers from birth. Soldiers from age 7 30. Slaves Owned by the State Women: Prepared physically for fighting, right to inherit property, must obey men. Education: Boys only. Military based training from age 7. Taught to
fight. Prohibition against trade, travel and mixing with other city-states. Athenian "democracy" was restricted in scope and in time Citizens had time for public service largely because they owned slaves. Most residents of Athens were not citizens and had no say in government. During the era of Pericles (about 30 years), the population was about 450,000, and less than 10% were adult male citizens with the power to vote. About 18% of the population were foreign-born with no legal rights and 55% of the residents of Athens were enslaved. Women had no political rights.
Collision: Persian Wars 490 479 BCE The Greek city-states did not unite until faced with a common enemy: Persia Notion of East/West divide as dominant theme in European thought: Greece: Europe, freedom Persia: Asia, despotism Athens The City Pericles Built Direct Democracy Citizen assembly voted directly on laws Huge construction projects
Acropolis and Parthenon rebuilt Emphasis on arts, architecture, philosophy and medicine Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) Sparta led resistance to Athenian imperialism (Athenian naval power had led to dominance over allies) Athens defeated Greek states were exhausted, distrusted each other Opening the way to takeover by Macedonia, a frontier region on the northern edge of Greece Ancient
Greece Collision: Alexander & The Hellenistic Era The World of Alexander the Great, 333 BCE 323 BCE Philip conquered Greece in 359 BCE; his next conquest was to be the Persian empire. The Macedonian army was the most superbly trained in the world. It made use of the phalanx configuration. Philip was assassinated before he could attack and conquer Persia. His son, Alexander, at the age of 20 took the throne and created a massive Greek empire that reached from Egypt and Anatolia to Afghanistan and India.
The Legacy of Alexander Upon the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE, his empire began to divide and dissolve. However, Alexander left behind a legacy of Greek thought, language and custom that survives in part today. Local cultures assimilated Greek ideas and language. They became Hellenic or Greek like The Hellenistic Age is the age of the dissemination of Greek culture after through much of Asia and Egypt. A simplified form of Greek was widely spoken from Mediterranean to India. Encouraged the work of scholars in cities that were
newly founded. Built libraries all over the empire especially at Alexandria, Egypt. Emphasized mathematics, medicine, science and philosophy. Roman Empire across three continents - Roman rule Replaced that of Greeks in western part of Hellenistic world, continuing to spread Greek culture and ideas. Social Studies SOL 3.1 The student will explain how the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome have influenced the present world in terms of architecture, government (direct and representative democracy), and sports. . The Republic of Rome,
about 509 BCE Republic: System of government in which officials are elected by the people. Senate: Most powerful
governing body. 300 members all patricians. Made the laws. First laws codified into the Twelve Tables Two Consuls elected by Senate. Ran the government and the army. Conflict with poorer classes developed into a political role for Tribunes elected by the people (plebeians) and could vote legislation Judges Oversaw courts cases
Pride in republican values: rule of law, citizens' rights, lack of pretension, morality and a work ethic - "the way of the ancestors" The Creation of Empire Beginning in 490s BCE with wars to control Italian peninsula, the creation of empire was extended to a competition for control of the Mediterranean Sea with the
Carthaginians in Africa. After three wars with the Carthaginians called the Punic wars the Romans emerged as the supreme rulers of the Mediterranean area. Creation of Empire The Carthaginians fought for their own preservation and the sovereignty of Africa. The Romans for supremacy and world domination. ( a Greek witness to the
destruction of Carthage.) The Romans were committed to a policy of imperialism - domination by one state of the political, economic or cultural life of another weaker state or region. Political Crisis of First Century BCE Widespread use of slave labor from conquered territories. Slave labor forced small farmers out of business. Led to mass unemployment and poverty. Mob riots and corruption in the government. Attempts at reform failed. Civil wars began. Julius Caesar emerged as dictator of Rome, decline of republican
values Caesar Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 BCE) as first emperor with sole authority Pax Romana Latin for "the Roman peace", is the long period of peace experienced by states within the Roman Empire. The term stems from the fact that Roman rule and its legal system pacified regions which had suffered from the quarrels between rival leaders, sometimes forcefully. During this time Rome still fought a number of wars against neighboring states and tribes, most notably the Germanic tribes and Parthia. It was an era of relative tranquility, in which Rome endured neither major civil wars, such as the
perpetual bloodshed of the first century BCE, nor serious invasions. Characterized by rule by emperors and a lack of democracy but security and relative prosperity. Roman Achievement Roman Roads - As early as the 4th century BCE, a good road system was recognized as vital for military deployment, communication and increasing commerce. By having an option to traveling around the peninsula or along the coast line of Italy, travelers and merchants could avoid some threat of storms, pirates and navigational problems. Well trained and extensive military. Because the military presence on Roman roads was so extensive, travel and trade were safer and much faster.
Roman rule of law - An accused person is innocent until proven guilty. ROME: The Colosseum ROME: Aqueducts ROME: The Pantheon
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