Part I: Getting Started 1.1 Becoming A Public Speaker Benefits of Public Speaking Gain a vital life skill Learn practical and transferrable knowledge Find new opportunities for engagement
Build on familiar skills Develop an effective oral style Become an inclusive speaker Four Categories of Human Communication Small group communication involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another.
Dyadic communication is a form of communication between two people, as in a conversation. Mass communication occurs between a speaker and a large audience of unknown people. Public speaking is when a speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech. Elements of Communication The source, or sender, is the person who creates a message.
The receiver is the recipient of the sources message. Creating, organizing, and verbalizing the message is called encoding. The process of interpreting the message is called decoding. The audience response to a message is called feedback, which can be conveyed verbally and nonverbally. Elements of Communication
The message is the content of the communication process: thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expression. The medium through which the speaker sends a message is the channel. Noise is any interference with the message (internal or external). Elements of Communication Shared meaning is the mutual understanding between speaker and
audience. The context includes anything that influences the speaker (audience, occasion, speech). All speeches are delivered in response to a specific rhetorical situation circumstance calling for a public response. Physical setting Recent events on campus or outside world Bearing the context and rhetorical situation in mind, ensures that you remain
audience centered. A speech purpose or goal is a final prerequisite for an effective speech. Classical Roots of Public Speaking The practice of oratory (rhetoric) emerged full force in Athens, Greece in the 5th century B.C.E. Referred to making effective speeches, especially those persuasive in nature. Athenians meet in a public square called an agora. Citizens spoke in a public space called a forum. Oratory was an essential tool in settling civil disputes, determining public policy, and establishing laws. Canons of Rhetoric
Invention- adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case. Arrangement- organizing the speech in ways best suited to the topic and audience. Style- way the speaker uses language to express speech ideas. Memory- practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered Delivery- the vocal and nonverbal behavior you use
when speaking. See Table 1.4 on page 12 Chapter 1.2: From A to Z: Overview of a Speech The Speechmaking Process 1) The 1st step in creating a speech is to select a topic (finding something to speak about). 2) The 2nd step is to analyze the audience Audience analysis is highly systematic process of getting to know your listeners relative to the topic and the speech occasion.
3) The next step is to determine the speech purpose. There are three general speech purposes: to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion. An informative speech provides an audience with new information, new insights, or new ways of thinking about a topic A persuasive speech intends to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, or acts of others A special occasion speech (ceremonial speech) marks a special event The speech should also have a specific purpose, a single phrase (usually left unsaid in the speech)stating what you expect the speech to accomplish.
4) Once the general and specific speech purposes are identified, you need to compose a thesis statement that clearly expresses the central idea of your speech (example page 11). The Speechmaking Process 5) Develop the main points (primary pieces of knowledge or key arguments in favor of your position) 6) Gather Supporting material- illustrates the main points by clarifying, elaborating, and verifying the speakers ideas. 7) Separate the speech into three major parts: the introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction serves to introduce the topic and the speaker
and to alert audience members to your specific speech purpose. The body contains the main points and sub-points, all of which support the thesis. The conclusion restates the speech purpose and reiterates how the main points confirm it. The Speechmaking Process 8) Outline the speech A speaker should create an outline which provides the framework upon which to arrange main points in support of your thesis. Based on principle of
coordination and subordinationlogical placement of ideas relative to their importance to one another. The Speechmaking Process 9) Consider presentation aids that summarize and highlight information. 10) Practice delivering the speech
Vocal delivery (i.e. volume, pitch, rate, variety, pronunciation and articulation) Nonverbal delivery (i.e. facial expressions, gestures, general body movement) Take the Plunge!!!
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