Geothermal Energy: An Overview - Wilkes University

Geothermal Energy: An Overview - Wilkes University

Hydroelectric Energy: An Overview Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D. Wilkes University QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. www.cs.berkeley.edu/~artin/ Points to be covered

The water cycle Flowing water as a source of power Historic uses of hydro power

Types of hydroelectric generation Benefits of hydroelectric power generation Current levels of hydroelectrical generation capacity worldwide and in US Issues regarding hydroelectric Potential new sources of hydroelectricity The WebQuest QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

www.rdc.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/ Flowing water is a source of power POWER (kW) = 5.9 x FLOW x HEAD FLOW is measured in m3/sec HEAD is measured in meters Hydro power is used in two ways Direct

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. www.mastergardenproducts.com/ Electrical generation QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

plaza.ufl.edu/cjk11/ Direct uses of hydro energy Textile manufacturing Grist mills Sawmills Irrigation QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

www.ourbc.com/travel_bc/ Hydroelectric power generation QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html Types of hydroelectrical

generation Impoundment Pumped storage capacity Run of river (diversion) Impoundment generating facility QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

geochange.er.usgs.gov/ Pumped storage capacity QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Stwlan.dam.jpg Diversion facility

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. www1.eere.energy.gov/ Classification of Hydro Plants Based on Size Micro - < 0.1 mW Small - 0.1 - 30 mW Large - >30 mW

Classification of Hydro Plants Based on Head High - >66 Ultra low - <10 QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Low - 10-66 wdfw.wa.gov/fish/ QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. www.usbr.gov www.fremontrescue.org/ 2000 Geothermal Education Office

Benefits of hydroelectric power Economic benefits No fuel costs Low labor

Dams provide recreation and flood protection Systems are long-lived (decades) Provides relatively constant power Conserves fossil fuels Benefits local economies Can be implemented remotely Can prevent pollution caused by fossil fuels Current worldwide hydroelectricity output

715,000 megawatts 19% of all energy production www.wikipedia.org Hydroelectric power output by QuickTime country (1992) and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html Hydroelectrical power output by country (2006) 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100

50 0 Output (TWh) China Brazil Canada USA Japan

Russia India SwedenFrance Norway en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hydroelectric capacity QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a

TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. ff.org/centers/csspp/library/ 2000 Geothermal Education Office QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. U.S. Hydroelectric storage capacity

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html Environmental problems? Impacts to fish and birds Upstream impacts

Wetlands are flooded Humans often displaced Siltation behind dams Release of greenhouse gasses Downstream effects Scouring Temperature impacts Dam failures can flood downstream communities

http://iga.igg.cnr.it/geo/geoenergy.php Potential new sources of hydroelectricity Tides QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Waves

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso are needed to see this picture. Tide Power Based on diurnal movements of water in oceans Most effective in areas with pronounced tides Include

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Tidal stream systems (kinetic energy of flow) Barrages (head energy of surface differences) www-staff.it.uts.edu.au Tidal stream systems Dominant technology

is shrouded turbine Prototypes have been tested in England, Australia, and Italy. Outputs up to 1.2 MW are noted QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. en.wikipedia.org/wiki

Barrage systems Depend upon impoundments built along coastlines Developed in Canada, Russia, and France Largest generates 240 MW. Limited by geography, environmental considerations

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. en.wikipedia.org/wiki Wave Power Based on up-and-down motion of sea surface Can be captured using devices that convert motion to electricity

Could yield more electricity than tidal Recently deployed systems include QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso are needed to see this picture. Portuguese project - 2.25 MW Scotland project - 3.0 MW

Challenges include low speeds, corrosion, wind damage www.dg58.dupage.k12.il.us So, is hydropower the answer to our energy concerns? You tell me!

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