Gases - Copley

Gases - Copley

States of Matter CHAPTER 5 GASES CHAPTER 10 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS C H A P T E R 1 1 S O LU T I O N S CHAPTER 6 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Homework Pg 223 1-11, 21-29, 39-49, 63-73, 81-85, 99-101 odd problems, Pg 486 1-9, 17-27, 33-43, 61-63, 93-103

Pg 531 11-17, 39-43 odd Pg 1052 13-31; 47-75 odd Pressure A barometer is a device to measure atmospheric pressure. The barometer was invented in 1643 by a student of Galileo, Italian scientist Evangelista Torricelli. His barometer is constructed by filling a glass tube with liquid mercury and inverting it in a dish of

mercury. Mercury is used to measure pressure because of its high density. By way of comparison, the column of water required to measure a given pressure would be 13.5 times as high as a mercury column used for the same purpose. Barometer 4 Device used to measure atmospheric pressure. Mercury flows out of

the tube until the pressure of the column of mercury standing on the surface of the mercury in the dish is equal to the pressure of the air on the rest of the surface of the mercury in the dish. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

Atmospheric pressure results from the mass of the air being pulled toward the center of the Earth by gravity. Altitude also affects the pressure. * At sea level, the height of the column of mercury is 760 mm. * At the peak of Mt. Everest, the column measures 270 mm Hg Weather

Different pressures correspond to different weather. Low pressure is stormy High pressure is clear Moist air rises, condenses, warms as it cools, forms clouds Low

Air sinks, it as it falls High Modern Barometers Digital Barometers and barometers with a dial use a sensor on a sealed drum. The top of the drum is flexible. Sealed inside the drum is air at a known (calibrated) pressure.

Higher outside pressure caves the drum in. Lower outside pressure bows the drum out. High pressure drum low pressure High pressure drum

low pressure High pressure drum low pressure Manometer 11 Device used for measuring

the pressure of a gas in a container. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Common Units of Pressure. 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg/torr 101.325 kPa Pressure Conversions.

The pressure of a gas is measured as 49 torr. Represent this pressure in both atmospheres and kilopascals. Boyles Law Named after Irish chemist Robert Boyle (1627- 1691). Using a closed-ended J-tube, Boyle found that gas volume is inversely proportional to its pressure.

With technology we have found that Boyles law holds precisely only at very low pressures. If a gas obey Boyles law exactly, it is said to be ideal. Boyles Law: PV = k or P1V1 = P2V2. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a gas that plays a central role in the formation of acid rain, is

found in the exhaust of automobiles and power plants. Consider a 1.53-L sample of gaseous SO2 at a pressure of 5.6 kPa. If the pressure is changed to 15 kPa at a constant temperature, what will be the new volume of the gas? Charles Law Named in honor of Jacques Charles (1746-1823). He was on the first manned hydrogen balloon flight. He found that the volume of a gas at constant pressure increases linearly with the temperature of

the gas. The temperature was originally plotted in degrees C. A plot of the gases showed that all volumes extrapolated to the same temperature, -273.2 C. This temperature is also known as 0 Kelvin or absolute zero. The Kelvin scale was devised by English physicist William Thomson, also known as Lord Kelvin, 50 years after Charless conclusions. Charles Law Charless Law: V/T = k or V1/T1 = V2/T2

* Temperature is in Kelvins. A sample of gas at 15o C and 1 atm has a volume of 2.58 L. What volume will the gas occupy at 38o C and 1 atm? Avogadros Law Named in honor of Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro (1776-1856). He stated that at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles.

Avogadros Law: V/n = k or V1/n1 = V2/n2 At 1 atm of pressure and 273 K, 1 mol of any gas occupies 22.4 L. Avogadros Law Suppose we have a 12.2 L sample containing 0.50 mol oxygen gas (O2) at a pressure of 1.0 atm and a temperature of 25o C. If all this O2

is converted to ozone (O3) at the same temperature and pressure, what would be the volume of the ozone? Combined/Ideal Gas Law Combining the previous laws gives us the combined gas law VP/T = VP/T A common derivation of the combined gas law is the ideal gas law PV = nRT R is the universal gas constant.

R = 8.31 L kPa/mol R = 0.0821 L atm/mol R = 62.4 L mm Hg/mol K Molecular View of The Ideal Gas Law 20 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Gas Laws I A sample of hydrogen gas (H2) has a volume

of 8.56 L at a temperature of 0o C and a pressure of 1.5 atm. Calculate the moles of H2 molecules present in this sample of gas. Suppose we have a sample of ammonia gas with a volume of 3.5 L at a pressure of 1.68 atm. The gas is compressed to a volume of 1.35 L at a constant temperature. Calculate the final pressure. Gas Laws II A sample of methane gas that has a volume of

3.8 L at 5o C is heated to 86o C at constant pressure. Calculate its new volume. A sample of diborane gas (B2H6), a substance that bursts into flames when exposed to air, has a pressure of 345 torr at a temperature of -15o C and a volume of 3.48 L. If conditions are changed so that the temperature is 36o C and the pressure is 468 torr, what will be the volume of the sample? Gas Laws V

A sample containing 0.35 mol argon gas at a temperature of 13o C and a pressure of 568 torr is heated to 56o C and a pressure of 897 torr. Calculate the change in volume that occurs. Gas Stoichiometry STP stands for standard temperature and pressure. The temperature = 0o C = 273 K. NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH STANDARD

STATE 25o C or 298K!!! The pressure is 1.00 atm, 101 kPa or an equivalent. Molar volume under these condition for an ideal gas is 22.4 L. Gas Stoichiometry A sample of nitrogen gas has a volume of 1.75 L at STP. How many moles of N2 are present? Quicklime (CaO) is produced by the thermal

decomposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Calculate the volume of CO2 at STP produced from the decomposition of 152 g CaCO3 by the reaction CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) Gas Stoichiometry II A sample of methane gas having a volume of 2.80 L at 25o C and 1.65 atm was mixed with a sample of oxygen gas having a volume of 35.0 L at 31o C and 1.25 atm. The mixture was then ignited to form carbon dioxide and water.

Calculate the volume of CO2 formed at a pressure of 2.50 atm and a temperature of 125o C. Molar Mass of a Gas and Gas Density. Deriving the equations for molar mass of a gas and gas density: n = m/M (m = mass (g) M = molar mass) PV = nRT PV = m/MRT M = mRT/PV d = m/v (D= density)

M = dRT/P Molar mass Determination The determination of molar masses of elements are relative to one another. That is to say Avoagadro took a certain amount of a gas and said, this is a mole. He took the mass of that amount, and that became the molar mass. HE THEN STARTED REACTING THE GAS WITH OTHER THINGS TO DETERMINE WHAT A MOLE OF THAT WAS.

He took the mass of the other elements, and that became the molar mass of that element relative to the first. Molar mass The current periodic table is based off of the most common isotope of carbon, C-12, having a molar mass 12.00 g/mol. The best method for determining molar mass today uses a mass spectrometer. To use this, elements are turned into ions and passed through a magnetic field. This deflects

the ions. Mass is inertia, resistance to change in motion. Heavier atoms will deflect less. The amount of deflection is measured and used to calculate the atomic mass. Mass spectrometer Gas Density/Molar Mass. The density of a gas was measured at 1.50 atm and 27o C and found to be 1.95 g/L. Calculate the molar mass of the gas.

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Named in honor of English scientist John Dalton. He stated that gases mix homogeneously. He also said that each gas in a mixture behaves as if it were the only gas present. Dalton Law: For a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone. P total = P1 + P2 + P3 + ......

The fact that the pressure exerted by an ideal gas is not affected by the identity (composition) of the gas particle reveal two things. The volume of the individual gas particles must not be important. The forces among the particles must not be important. Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Named in honor of English scientist John

Dalton. He stated that gases mix homogeneously. He also said that each gas in a mixture behaves as if it were the only gas present. Dalton Law: For a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone. P total = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...... The fact that the pressure exerted by an ideal

gas is not affected by the identity (composition) of the gas particle reveal two things. The volume of the individual gas particles must not be important. The forces among the particles must not be important. Daltons Law I Mixtures of helium and oxygen are used in scuba diving tanks to help prevent the bends. For a particular dive, 46 L He at 25o C

and 1.0 atm and 12 L O2 at 25o C and 1.0 atm were pumped into tank with a volume of 5.0 L. Calculate the partial pressure of each gas and the total pressure in the tank at 25o C. Mole Fraction A mole fraction (c) is the ratio of the number of moles of a given component in the total number of moles in the mixture. The mole fraction equation: c == = = = =n1

ntotal = Ptotal P1 Daltons Law The partial pressure of oxygen was observed to be 1.56 torr in air with a total atmospheric pressure of 743 torr. Calculate the mole

fraction of O2 present. The mole fraction of nitrogen in the air is 0.7808. Calculate the partial pressure of N2 in air when the atmospheric pressure is 760. torr. Gas Collection over Water A sample of solid potassium chlorate (KClO3) was heated in a test tube and decomposed by the following reaction: 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

The oxygen produced was collected by water displacement at 22o C at a total pressure of 754 torr. The volume of the gas collected was 0.650 L, and the vapor pressure of water at 22o C is 21 torr. Calculate the partial pressure of O2 in the gas collected and the mass of KClO3 in the sample that was decomposed. gas collection over water Kinetic Molecular Theory The kinetic molecular theory (KMT) is a simple

model that attempts to explain the properties of an ideal gas. gases consist of hard, spherical particles, atoms or molecules. Because the particles are so small and the distances between them are so great, their individual volumes are insignificant. The volume of a gas is mostly empty space. . Property: Gases are highly compressible. There are no attractive or repulsive forces between gas particles. Gases are free to move inside their containers.

Property: A gas expands until it takes the volume and shape of its container. Kinetic Molecular Theory Gas particles move rapidly in constant random motion. The particles travel in straight paths and move independently of each other. Only when a particle collides with a container wall or another gas particle does it deviate from its straight-line path. In addition, collisions between gas particle are elastic, meaning that the total kinetic energy remains constant

and that the kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another. the average kinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. Assumptions of KMT The particles are so small compared with the distance between them that the volume of the individual particles can be assumed to be negligible (zero). The particles are in constant random motion. The collisions of the particles with the wall of the container

are the cause of the pressure exerted by the gas. The particles are assumed to exert no forces on each other; the are assumed to neither attract nor to repel each other. The average kinetic energy of a collection of gas particles is assumed to be directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. Maxwell Botzman distribution This describes particles speeds in ideal gases that particles at a certain temperature can move without intermolecular forces acting on

them. The graph is a probability distribution for the speeds of the particles. This graph Is for 25o C Justification of the gas laws using KMT Pressure and Volume (Boyles Law). Law: For a given sample of gas at constant T and n, if the volume of a gas is decreased, the pressure increases. V = (nRT) 1/P

KMT: Since a decrease in volume means that the gas particles will hit the container wall more often, the pressure should increase. Volume and Temperature (Charless Law). Law: At constant P and n, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. V = (nR/P) T

KMT: When a gas is heated to a higher temperature, the speeds of its molecules increase and thus hit the walls more often with more force. The only way to keep the pressure constant in this situation is to increase the volume of the container. Volume and Number of Moles (Avogadros Law) Law: The volume of a gas at constant P and T depends directly on the number of gas particles present. V = (RT/P) n

KMT: An increase in the number of gas particles at the same temperature would cause the pressure to increase if the volume were held constant. The only way to return the pressure to its original value is to increase the volume. It is important to recognize that the volume of a gas depends only on the number of gas particle present. The individual volumes of the particles are not a factor because the particle volumes are so small compared to the distances between the particles. Mixture of Gases (Daltons Law).

Law: The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of the individual gases. KMT: All gases are independent of one another and the volumes of the individual particles are unimportant. Thus the identities of the gas particles do not matter. Diffusion ~Movement of a gas from an area of high

concentration to an area of low concentration. This is why you can smell perfume all throughout a room when it is sprayed. Using the ideal gas model- you wouldnt expect a certain type of atoms to stay together. High Diffusion

Low All particles move randomly. There is no desire to travel anywhere. However, there are more particles at high pressure than low pressure. So the probability of particles going from high to low is higher Diffusion On the last slide say there were 5 particles at low pressure and 100 at high pressure. Each particle has a 1/5 chance of moving from 1

circle to the other. What happens? 1 moves from low to high 20 move from high to low That means we have a net flow of 19 particles from high to low. To make it a reasonable amount we really need much more than 100 particles to start so put a x1020 at the end of all numbers. Effusion ~a gas moving through an opening. Like a tire with a leak in it. Really this only depends on the likelihood of a

particle reaching the hole. Which is dependant upon the number of particles present and the speed of the particles. Tire with a leak The particle inside have a higher pressure than the particles outside. Tire The material will be weak on either

side and open like flaps That means there is more gas particles on the inside than on the outside Therefore they should hit the hole and escape more often than outside particles. Tire with a leak

Any individual particle inside or outside of the tire should have the same chance of hitting the hole. The particles inside have a higher pressure than the particles outside. Which means there are more particles in a given area inside Therefore more inside particles the Tire tire than outside. The material will be weak on either side and open like

flaps should hit the hole than outside particles, and there should be net flow of air particles outward. Comparing the rates of effusion of gas molecules All gases will not effuse at the same rate. It depends on the speed of each gas molecule.

At the same temperature, all particles will have the same kinetic energy, but they all have different masses (their molar mass). KE = mv2 Therefore, their velocities must be different. The faster moving particles will cover more ground in the same amount of time and be more likely to find the opening. Effusion Thomas Graham (1805-1869), found

experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles. Grahams Law of Effusion: M2 Rate of effusion for gas 1 = Rate of effusion for gas 2 M1 Effusion Rates. Calculate the ratio of the effusion rates of

hydrogen gas (H2) and uranium hexafluoride (UF6), a gas used in the enrichment process to produce fuel for nuclear reactors. Temperature Temperature is a measure of the energy of molecular motion; a transfer of KE from collisions of higher energy objects to collections of lower energy particles. Equation: 3RT

urms = M The root mean square velocity (urms) is the square root of the average of the squares of the individual velocities of gas particles. M = molar mass in kg /mol Root Mean Square Velocity Calculate the root mean square velocity for the atoms in a sample of helium gas at 25o C

Real Gases No real gas follows exactly what the KMT predicts. This is because Atoms/molecules do have finite molecular volumes. Attractions do exist between molecules. When temperature decreases or pressure increase, condensation occurs. Real gases behave nearly ideally, act like KMT predicts, under ordinary conditions of low pressure and high temperature.

Plots of PV/nRT Versus P for Several Gases (200 K) 60 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Plots of PV/nRT Versus P for Nitrogen Gas at Three Temperatures 61 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

The van der Waals Equation This equation adjusts pressure up and volume down. 2 [ Pobs a (n / V ) ] V nb = nRT

corrected pressure corrected volume Pideal Videal The a and b variables are the van der Waals constants. They are positive values specific to each gas. They are obtained from a table. a is related to molar mass and relate with the strength of the intermolecular attractions. b is a measure of actual molecular volume. Values of the van der Waals Constants for Some Gases

63 The value of a reflects how much of a correction must be made to adjust the observed pressure up to the expected ideal pressure. A low value for a reflects weak intermolecular forces among the gas

molecules. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Inter/Intramolecular Attractions. Intramolecular forces These are forces within a molecule or polyatomic ion. They are also referred to as bonding forces. These influence chemical properties. Intermolecular Attractions (IMA).

These are forces between molecules, ions, or atoms. They influence physical properties. States of Matter For a gas, the energy of attraction (IMA) is less than the energy of motion. The particles, therefore, are far apart. For a liquid, the energy of attraction (IMA) is stronger, but KE allows for movement. The particles, therefore, are closer, but with

motion. For a solid, the energy of attraction (IMA) is greater than the energy of motion. The particles, therefore, as arranged in a fixed, organized pattern. Types of Intermolecular Attractions. Ionic attractions- very strong. All ions are attracted to all opposite ions Metallic attractions- very strong. Sea of electrons keep all nuclei tightly bound Dipole/dipole attractions- weak. The larger the

difference in electronegativity, the stronger the attractions. Larger molecules are more polarizable. Hydrogen bonding- strongest dipole-dipole (still weak). Occurs within an element that has Nitrogen, Oxygen, or Fluorine (NOF) bonded to Hydrogen. London dispersion- weakest. London Forces These are short lived induced dipole dipole attractions between molecules that do not normally have a dipole moment Through random motions, electrons end up

unbalanced, then force other atoms/molecules into a similar state. As the electrons do constantly move, and will eventually end the dipole moment. It is also fairly weak. Larger atoms or molecules (with more electrons) have stronger London forces. With more electrons it is easier for the atom or molecule to have its electrons unbalanced and stay that way for an extended period of time. Predicting the Type and Relative Strength of Intermolecular Forces.

In each of the following pairs, identify all the intermolecular forces present and select the substance with the higher boiling point: MgCl2 or PCl3 CH3NH2 or CH3F CH3OH or CH3CH2OH Hexane or cyclohexane CH3Br or CH3Cl CH3CH2OH or CH3OCH3 C2H6 or C3H8

IMA in a mixture Ion-Dipole Forces. This occurs when an ion is attracted to a polar molecule. Example: salt dissolved in water Dipole-Dipole Forces. This occurs between two polar molecules. Example: (why like dissolves like) ethanol dissolving in water

Ion-Induced Dipole Forces This occurs when an ion is attracted to a distorted nonpolar molecule. The electron density of the nonpolar molecule is shifted as a result of a charged particle. Example: Fe2+ attracted to dissolved oxygen (O2) in blood. The iron induces a dipole in the oxygen molecule. This attraction is important for oxygen transport in the body by hemoglobin. People with an iron deficiency (anemic) have

trouble with this oxygen transport because of this Dipole-Induced Dipole This occurs between a polar molecule and a distorted nonpolar molecule. Example: Hydrogen chloride gas and argon. The HCl is polar and induces the argon into a polar arrangement. Induced dipole induced dipole These are just dispersion forces.

Both molecules have their dipoles induced by each other Iodine is an example Properties of a Liquid Surface Tension. Surface Tension Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface area by a given amount (in J/m2).

To reduce the instability of the entire substance at the surface, a liquid will reduce the number of particles exposed to the surface. * The particles form a tight skin at the surface. The stronger the forces between the particles in a liquid, the greater the surface tension. Capillary action Capillarity, capillary action, is the ability of a substance to naturally rise

up a tube against gravity. There is a cohesive force or attraction of the water molecules to each other and an adhesive force, attraction of the water molecules to the container. In this case, the adhesive force is stronger. In mercury, the cohesive force is stronger. Viscosity Viscosity is the resistance to flow of a liquid.

The viscosity of a liquid decreases with increasing temperature. Molecular shape also plays a role in determining a liquids viscosity. * Longer molecules have more contact points for attractive forces and have higher viscosities. Crystalline Solids Crystals have lattice structures made of unit cells.

A lattice is an array of points that forms a regular pattern. A unit cell is the simplest arrangement of points that, when repeated in all directions, gives the lattice. The coordination number of a particle in a crystal is the number of nearest neighbors surrounding it. Simple Cubit Packing Efficiency Packing efficiency is the percentage of the

available volume of a crystal is occupied by spheres. Simple cubic packing efficiency is 52% (48% unused space). It is very rare Body-centered cubic packing efficiency is 68%. It is found in Cr, Fe and all group 1 metals. Face-centered cubic packing efficiency is 74%. It is found in Ni, Cu, Pb. Other types of packing methods There are several other methods of packing

that dont make a cube. Hexagonal Closest packing can also reach 74% packing efficiency. Mg, Zn and Ti use this style Covalent Network Solid These are giant molecules, meaning a diamond you can pick up is just 1 molecule. Type of Bonding: Directional covalent bonds, meaning atoms are in a fixed (nonmoving position)

Typical Properties: Hard, high melting point, insulator. Diamond, sulfur, silicon, silicon dioxide Covalent Network Solids These only form between nonmetals (carbon to make graphite or diamond, sulfur, silicon) or two nonmetals (silicon dioxde {glass/sand}) The high melting point is due to everything

being bonded together rigidly. These tend to have rigid structures due to this as well. One exception is graphite, it is soft because it is composed sheets that can slide by one another. Semiconductor Semiconductors, like silicon, are still network solids but they are not as good of an insulator. They are not great conductors either. They are in between.

Electrons can jump through slowly. Conductivity is increased by doping the semiconductors. N-type semiconductors have their conductivity increased by adding elements with more valence electrons than the host element. P-type semiconductors have their conductivity increased by adding elements with fewer electrons. Transistors Transistors, incredibly important for modern

electronics, are made by connecting a p-type with an n-type semiconductor. N-type have extra electrons, p-type have holes for electrons to fill. Electrons jump from n-type to p-type. If a charge is applied they revert to their original state. This gives the two states needed for binary code, 1 0. They can be made unbelievably tiny. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IcrBqCFLHIY&feature=youtu.be Noble Gases

Structural Unit: Atom. Type of Bonding: London dispersion forces. Typical Properties: Very low melting points. Helium, Argon Molecular Structural Unit: Molecule. Type of Bonding: Polar molecules- dipole/dipole interactions; Nonpolar molecules- London dispersion forces.

Typical Properties: Soft, low melting, insulator. Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen Ionic Structural Unit: Ion. Type of Bonding: Ionic. Ionic bonds blur the line between bonds and intermolecular forces, because every single positive ion is attracted to every single negative ion around it and vice versa. This is why ionic compounds are

usually solids. Typical Properties: High melting point, insulator. Calcium chloride, copper sulfate Atomic Metallic Structural Unit: Atom. Type of Bonding: Nondirectional covalent bonds (meaning the atoms can slide around one another) involving electrons that are delocalized throughout the crystal.

Typical Properties: Wide range of hardness, wide range of melting points, conductor. Iron, zinc Ionic Structural Unit: Ion. Type of Bonding: Ionic. Ionic bonds blur the line between bonds and intermolecular forces, because every single positive ion is attracted to every single negative ion around it and vice versa. This is why ionic compounds are

usually solids. Typical Properties: High melting point, insulator. Calcium chloride, copper sulfate Atomic Metallic Structural Unit: Atom. Type of Bonding: Nondirectional covalent bonds (meaning the atoms can slide around one another) involving electrons that are delocalized throughout the crystal.

Typical Properties: Wide range of hardness, wide range of melting points, conductor. Iron, zinc Mixtures with metallic properties: These are called alloys. Substitutional: structural substitution, where one atom replaces another Brass- copper and zinc Interstitial: where one atom fills in the spaces within the structure.

Steel- iron and carbon Brass Steel Amorphous Solids They have an irregular lattice structure Quantitative Aspects of Changes of State The Heating-Cooling Curve.

Enthalpy for phase changes There are constant values for the enthalpy of a phase change. The energy required to go from solid to liquid is called the heat of fusion (Hfus). The energy required to go from liquid to gas is called heat of vaporization (Hvap). q = H n For heating a substance, q = nCT or q = mc

T Problem How much heat is required to heat 3.65 mol of ice at 15o C to steam at 115o C? Hfus = 6010 J/mol Hvap = 40,700 J/mol Cice = 38.09 Cwater = 75.3 Csteam = 36.8 (heat to melting-15 to 0) (heat to melt) (heat to boiling 0 to 100) (heat to boil off) (heat to 100 to 115) q = 3.65 (38.09) 15 + 3.65(6010)

+3.65(75.3)100 + 3.65(40700) + 3.65(36.8)15 q = 202 kJ The Equilibrium Nature of Phase Changes Liquid-gas equilibria. This is viewed for a CLOSED CONTAINER in a VACUUM. The rate of condensation = rate of vaporization. Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a vapor in a closed system.

* Vapor pressure increases with temperature as the KE increases. * Vapor pressure increases with weaker intermolecular attractions. Boiling occurs when the vapor pressure equals the external pressure. Boiling can only occur in an open container. If the container were sealed, the pressure would constantly be increased by the heating, preventing the vapor pressure from being able to catch up. Eventually the container would

burst. The normal boiling point of a substance is when the vapor pressure is 1 atm. Superheating/Supercooling Changes of state do not always occur exactly at the boiling or melting point. Supercooling is to cool a liquid below it freezing point. It happens if the liquid cools but does not achieve the appropriate organization necessary to become a liquid. At some point, it does get the right organization and rapidly freezes.

Superheating is when a liquid is heated above its boiling point. This happens when there are no places for the bubbles to form. Once it does boil, the liquid tends to shoot out of the container. Supercooling curve Phase Diagrams Water phase diagram Chapter 11

S O LU T I O N S Mixtures Heterogeneous mixture- unevenly mixed substance (separation can be seen) Homogeneous mixture- evenly mixed substance (no separation can be seen) Suspensions ~Small but visible particles suspended or

floating in a gas or liquid (heterogeneous mixture) Like a snow globe or dust or shake before using the particles are too big to float forever without being stirred If a suspension sits, the particles will settle Can be filtered out

Colloids or Colloidal Suspension ~mixture that appears uniform unless under a high powered microscope. Particles are a little larger than the wavelength of light Extremely light particles float almost indefinitely. Milk, blood, smoke These can be separated in a centrifuge Colloids

A suspension contains very large particles that settle out of solution. A solution contains very small solute particles that do not separate from the solvent. A colloid contains intermediate particles (solute-like) distributed throughout a dispersing (solvent-like) substance. Brownian motion measures the change in speed and direction of colloidal particles because of the action of the dispersing medium

Types of Colloids Tyndall Effect ~Scattering of light by a colloid or suspension Both a colloid and a suspension have particles larger than the wavelength of light, so when light shines through it should be deflected every which way. This will make the beam of light visible. Solutions

Particles are smaller than the wavelength of light. Therefore, it will not scatter light. With solutions, no separation can be seen even under a high powered microscope. Cannot be separated by any filter or by a centrifuge. Can be separated by boiling/ melting points. salt water, metal alloys, air Physical vs Chemical change Ionic solutions are in a gray area as far as

whether than are a chemical or physical change. Normally solutions are considered mixtures, just a physical change. If the solute changes phase it is easy to separate them. However, in order to make an ionic solution ionic bonds must be broken. NaCl Na+ + Cl- Tyndall Effect Colloid/suspension

solution Parts of a solution Solvent- what the substance is dissolved in Solute- what is being dissolved Water is called the universal solvent because it dissolves a lot of substances and is very common. Water solutions are called aqueous. Mass and volume In a solution, mass is conserved, however,

volume is not. That is to say, the mass of a solution = mass of the solute + solvent. The volume of a solution may not equal the volume of the solute +solvent. Example It is easy to think of sand and water (not a solution, but it works for the general concept) If you mix a liter of sand and a liter of water

you get A mixture that is more than one liter but less than 2 liters. Now this applies to solutions, if you mix 1 L of water with .5 liter of Na2 CO3 the resultant solution is more than 1 L but less than 1.5 L Density of solutions Increasing the mass of the solution and not increasing the volume comparatively will increase the density.

Dissolving solids into water almost always increases the density. How much the density increases, depends on how much is dissolved. Solution misconceptions Solutions dont have to be a solid in a liquid. carbonated water is CO dissolved in water, 2 streams have dissolved O2 in them. The solvent doesnt have to be water or even a liquid.

Alloys (two or more metals) are a solution as is air. Several things dissolve in oils. Gases Gases dissolved in water tend to decrease the density of the solution. Again the volume of the solution does NOT increase anywhere near the volume of the gas + water, but it does increase at a greater rate than the mass. Liquids

Liquids may increase or decrease the density of the solution dependent on whether they are more or less dense than the solvent. Rubbing alcohol will decrease the density of a water solution, where acetic acid will increase the density of a water solution. Coke v. Diet Coke Coke cans sink in water, diet coke floats. That means a coke can is more dense than water, diet coke is less dense.

Aluminum is more dense than water, but there is head space, a little air pocket, at the top of the can. Diet Coke (and all diet beverages) use artificial sweeteners like Nutrasweet. Nutrasweet is 200x sweeter than sugar, so you need to dissolve less in the solution, making it less dense Definitions A solute is what is dissolved A solvent is what it is dissolved in Solubility/Miscibility is a measure of how

easily something dissolves in another substance To be dilute means a small amount of solute per solvent To be concentrated means a large amount of solute per solvent Types of solutions Example State of

Solution State of Solute State of Solvent Air, natural gas Gas Gas

Gas Vodka, antifreeze Liquid Liquid Liquid Brass Solid

Solid Solid Carbonated water (soda) Liquid Gas Liquid

Seawater, sugar solution Liquid Solid Liquid Hydrogen in platinum Solid Gas

Solid Formation of a Liquid Solution 12 4 1. Separating the solute into its individual components (expanding the solute). 2. Overcoming intermolecular forces in the solvent to make room for the solute (expanding the solvent).

3. Allowing the solute and solvent to interact to form the solution. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Steps in the Dissolving Process 12 5 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

Steps in the Dissolving Process 12 6 Steps 1 and 2 require energy, since forces must be overcome to expand the solute and solvent. Step 3 usually releases energy. Steps 1 and 2 are endothermic, and step 3 is often exothermic. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights

reserved Enthalpy (Heat) of Solution 12 7 Enthalpy change associated with the formation of the solution is the sum of the H values for the steps: Hsoln = H1 + H2 + H3 Hsoln may have a positive sign (energy

absorbed) or a negative sign (energy released). Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Enthalpy (Heat) of Solution 12 8 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

Steps 1 and 2 are Hsolute Step 3 is Hhydr Heats of Hydration: Ionic Solids in Water. Hsoln = Hsolute = = = = =Hhydr Hhydr is always exothermic (negative) because the ion-dipole force is greater than the hydrogen bonding in water. The charge density, the ratio of charge to volume, affects Hhydr. * The trend down a group is to decrease Hhydr because a larger ion means a larger radius between particles, therefore less energy is

required to break the attraction. * The trend across a period is to increase Hhydr as charge increases. The Solution Process and the Tendency Toward Disorder Entropy is a measure of a systems disorder. Because the solution process occurs naturally, which creates more disorder, entropy is increased. Saturation

Saturated solution- solution that has all the solute it can hold. If any more is added it will not dissolve. Supersaturated solution- a soln. holding more solute than it should A supersaturated solution is made by heating a solution to dissolve more solute and then cooling it. If you disturb a supersaturated solution the solute will fall out of solution. Temperature

Solubility increases with temperature if the solution process is endothermic (Hsoln > 0). Solubility decreases with temperature if the solution process is exothermic (Hsoln < 0). Generally, ionic solids increase their solubility in water as temperature increases. Generally, gases decrease their solubility in water as temperature increases. Pressure Pressure changes have little effect on solid

and liquid solubility. Henrys Law states that the solubility of a gas (Sgas) is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas (Pgas) above the solution. Paper Chromatography Separating a solution by capillary action Capillary action is the attraction of a liquid to the surface of a solid, it is why water climbs up things For a simple chromatography place ink on chromatography paper and place the paper in a

solvent capable of dissolving the ink with the ink above the liquid. The solvent will climb up the paper. Along the way it will dissolve the ink. Inks are normally mixtures of different colors. The different colors are likely to have different mobility rates (speed at which the water can drag it). This will pull the ink apart. Chromatography There are several laboratory techniques that use the same principle.

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) uses an absorbent material like silica gel instead of paper. Column chromatography has a stationary phase in a tube. Gas chromatography has a gas as the mobile phase. Gas chromatography is used in breathalyzer machines to test for DUIs Frequently used standards of concentration Measuremen Generic

Notation Typical units t formula Molarity M mol/L (or M) mol/kg (or Molality m m**) Mole fraction (chi) (decimal)

Mass wt% % percentage *parts per (ppt, ppm, ppb) is the same as mass percent, except you multiply by a thousand, million or billion Colligative (Collective) Properties of Solutions Colligative properties of a solution are properties that depend on the fact that

something is dissolved in solution, not what is dissolved in the solution. These properties of a solution are always compared against the pure solvent. Nonvolatile nonelectrolytic (ideal) solutions Vapor Pressure Lowering (P). The solutions vapor pressure is always lower than the pure solvent. Surface particles consist of some nonvolatile solute particles that have replaced some solvent particles. Therefore, not as many

solvent particles are permitted to become a vapor. Vapor Pressures of Solutions 13 9 Nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of a solvent. Raoults Law: P =

c P soln solv solv Psoln = observed vapor pressure of solution c = mole fraction of solvent solv = vapor P pressure of pure solvent solv Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

Calculations for phase change points T = change in temperature Boiling point elevation = BP normal + T Where T = K (m)i b Freezing Point Depression = FP

normal - T Where T = K (m)i f K is the ebulliscopic constant b K is the cyroscopic constant f m is the molality of the solution i is the Vant Hoff factor Vant Hoff Factor (i) Colligative properties means it doesnt matter

what the solute is. Some things when dissolved dissociate (ionic compounds), which, if you dont care what the solute is technically would increase the molality. + NaCl (s) Na (aq) + Cl (aq) Sodium chloride dissociates into 2 things So its Vant Hoff factor is 2 C H O 6 12 6(s) C6H12O6 (aq) Glucose is a covalent compound that doesnt

dissociate, so its Vant Hoff factor is 1 Boiling Point Elevation (Tb). The boiling point of ethanol is 78.5o C. What is the boiling point of a solution of 3.4 g vanillin (M = 152.14 g/mol) in 50.0 g ethanol? (Kb of ethanol = 1.22 C/m). A solution was prepared by dissolving 18.00 g glucose in 150.0 g water. The resulting

solution was found to have a boiling point of 100.34o C. Calculate the molar mass of glucose. Glucose is a molecular solid that is present as individual molecules in solution. Osmotic pressure (p) is the pressure that results from the inability of solute particles to cross a semipermeable membrane; the pressure required to prevent the net movement of solvent across the membrane. p = iMRT = osmotic pressure (atm)

M = molarity of the solution R = gas law constant T = temperature (Kelvin) p To determine the molar mass of a certain protein, 1.00 x 10-3 g of it was dissolved in enough water to make 1.00 mL of solution. The osmotic pressure of this solution was found to be 1.12 torr at 25o C. Calculate the molar mass of the protein.

Volatile nonelectrolytic solutions When a solution contains two volatile components, both contribute to the total vapor pressure, but not necessarily in equal amounts. Equal amounts of liquid do not produce equal amounts of vapor. Solutions Most solutions are clear. Copper solutions are blue.

Nickel solutions are green Iron III is yellow to orange. (Iron II is light blue) Cobalt is pink Permanganate is purple Chromate is yellow Dichromate is orange Metal coordination complexes are a variety of colors. Color ---quick physics break--What is color?

White light is all colors of light put together You only see light that hits your eye. Light is composed of photons. The frequency, wavelength and energy of these photons are related. Visible light is a wavelength range of 400-700 nm. ROY G BIV is the order Red is low energy, high wavelength, low frequency Violet is high energy, low wavelength, high frequency The EM spectrum

Absorption Some photons can be absorbed by atoms. The photons (packets of energy) excite the atom, causing its electrons to jump up energy levels. Only particular photons can be absorbed. They have to resonate with the atom. That means some photons are too high energy to be absorbed, other are too low. For copper to be a blue solution (white light is all colors) it has to absorb lower energy (red orange yellow green) and higher

energy (violet) but allow the middle range (blue) to pass through. We see light that hits our eye Since all colors of light have been removed except blue, we say the solution is blue (even though is absorbing everything but blue). Photosynthesis is a reaction powered by the absorption of visible light. What color would be bad to use as a grow light? Green, it is reflected by the plant (you can

tell because you see it), all other colors are absorbed and used to power the reaction. Beers Law There are a couple of factors that determine how much light will be absorbed. A - Absorbance a - the absorptivity constant of the solution b - the path length of the light source (how wide the cuvette is), cm c - concentration of the solution, M A = abc

You can also calculate the transmittance (the reverse of absorbance of a solution by A = 2 log (%T) More Beers law It is important to make sure the light source going though the substance will be absorbed by the solution. Copper is a blue solution. Blue would be a poor choice of light to check for absorbance because it isnt absorbed.

Organic Introduction Two Group 14 elements, carbon and silicon, form the basis for most natural substances. Silicon, with its great affinity for oxygen, forms chains and rings containing Si-O-Si bridges to produce silica and silicates that form the basis for most rocks, sands, and soils. Silicon may be the most important element in the geological world.

Carbon Carbon has the unusual ability of bonding to itself to form long chains or rings of carbon atoms. Carbon forms strong bonds to other nonmetals such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and the halogens. Several million (11 million-plus) are known, and the number continues to grow rapidly. Carbon is the most important compound to the biological world.

Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon- containing compounds and their properties. Oxides and carbonates that contain carbon are not considered to be organic, they are inorganic. The original distinction between organic and inorganic was based on whether a compound was produced by living things. Organic chemistry plays a vital role in our quest to understand living systems.

Industrial organic chemistry produces synthetic fibers (nylon, rayon), plastics, rubber (latex) explosives, artificial sweeteners, vinegar and pharmaceuticals that are such an important part of modern life. The energy on which we rely so heavily on to power our civilization is based mostly on organic materials found in coal and petroleum.

Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen. Saturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-carbon bonds that are all single bonds (each carbon is bonded to four atoms). Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-carbon multiple bonds and can react with additional atoms.

Hydrocarbons 16 0 Saturated means it is full of hydrogen Unsaturated is missing hydrogens because of the double/triple bonds. H H

H C C H H H

H C H Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved C H C

C H Root words Meth # of C atoms 1 Hex # of C

atoms 6 Eth 2 Hept 7 Prop

3 Oct 8 But 4 Non 9

Pent 5 Dec 10 So for example H HHH H-C-C-C-C-H H HHH

butane H HHHHHHH H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H H HHHHHHH octane H HH H H-C-C-C-H H-C-H H HH H propane

methane Molecular Formulas Alkanes always have the molecular formula of: CxH2x+2 2 H on every C except the end, they get 3 HexaneC6H14 molecular formula HHHHHH Lewis Dot, or H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H

Structural Formula HHHHHH Skeleton Formulas Drawing Lewis Dot structural formulas for long organic compounds can get rather tedious. So organic has shortened it They dont write the Cs or the Hs You draw a jagged line, at each corner there is a Carbon Assume all extra spaces are filled with

H For Example Heptane, C7H16 HHHHHHH H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H HHHHHHH = Nonane, C9H20

HHHHHHHHH H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H HHHHHHHHH = Isomers Isomers- compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas Different structural formulas mean it has different properties Butane is the first alkane with a

possible isomer HHHH = H-C-C-C-C-H HHHH H H H or H-C- C - C-H Both are C H H HCH H H

4 10 Butane 16 7 Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved Naming Isomers Name the longest chain possible.

As a prefix name the chain attached with yl on the end and give the number of the carbon atom it is attached to 2 1 6 4 3

Longest Chain 5 7 3 ethyl heptane It could also be 5 ethyl heptane if you started numbering from the other side, when given an option always go with the Lower number!!!

Name this molecule And give its molecular formula 4 ethyl octane C10H22 4 propyl decane C13H28 Cyclic Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon that is a ring instead of a chain. To name it,

give it the prefix cyclo- Molecular Formula Subtract 2 H from CxH2x+2 CxH2X cyclobutane HH H-C-C-H H-C-C-H HH C4H8 Name the following compounds and

give their formula cyclohexane C6H12 cyclooctane C8H16 cycloheptane C7H14 cyclodecane C10H20

Name and give the formula Methyl cyclohexane C7H14 Alkenes Contain a double bond They get the suffix -ene and the number of the carbon atom the double bond is on (lowest number) Molecular formula Subtract 2 H for each double bond

Skeleton fomula from CxH2x+2 1 butene H H H H-C=C-C-C-H H H H C4H8 Alkynes

Contain a triple bond They get the suffix -yne and the number of the carbon atom the triple bond is on. Molecular formula subtract 4 H for each triple bond from CxH2x+2 H Skeleton fomula 2 pentyne H H

H H H H-C-C=C-C-C-H C5H8 Name and give the formula for these compounds 2 hexene C6H12

Cyclopentane C5H10 3 methyl nonaneC10H22 ethyne (commonly known as acetylene) C2H2 3 methyl 1 pentene C6H12 Name and give the formula for these compounds 2 heptene C7H14 Cyclopentene

C5H8 cyclopropane C3H6 1 butyne C4H6 3 ethyl 1 hexene C8H16 Doubles and triples If you have two of the same thing

put di in front of it If you have three of the same thing put tri in front of it Examples 2,3 hexadiene C6H10 3,4,4 trimethyl heptane C10H22

Multiple groups on a chain Name each and put them in alphabetical order 3, 4 diethyl 2 methyl 1 heptene C12H24 Common functional groups Functional Groups

Atoms other than hydrogen or carbon covalently bonded to a carbon atom in an organic molecule. Most commonly oxygen, nitrogen, or the halogens. The presence of a functional group drastically changes the chemical properties of a molecule. Different Functional groups with a 2 carbon chain Ethane- gas (found in natural gas) Ethanol- grain alcohol (drinkable)

Ethanoic acid- vinegar Diethyl ether- starting fluid Chloro fluoro ethane (CFCs used as refrigerants) Ethanal- foul smelling liquid (similar to formaldehyde) Halogenated Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons with halogens attached Before the main chain name the

halogen as either fluoro, chloro, bromo or iodo and give its number For each halogen subtract 1 H Cl 1,3-dichloro cycloctane C8H14Cl2 Cl Practice F

2 fluoro 1 butene C4H7F Br Br 2,5-dibromo 3-ethyl 4-methyl heptane C10H20Br2 Alcohols Hydrocarbons with an OH attached To name it, give it the suffix (an)ol and

the number the OH is attached to Normally you subtract one H from the main group and put an OH on the end (to signify it is an alcohol) H O C2H5OH Ethanol OH

C3H7OH 2 propanol Commonly Isopropanol or Rubbing alcohol Aldehydes Hydrocarbons with a =O on the outer edge of the chain (most have a foul stench, like formaldehyde or methanal)

To name it add the suffix al For the formula subtract 2 H and =O add O O= octanal hexanal C6H12O C8H16O Ketones Hydrocarbons with a =O not on

O= O= the edge of the compound To name it add the suffix one For the formula subtract 2 H and add O cyclopropanone C3H4O 3-nonanone C9H18O

Carboxylic Acid Hydrocarbons with a COOH group attached To name it give it the suffix oic acid, the C in the group does count Subtract one C one H and add COOH This group looks like Pentanoic acid RC4H9COOH O

C=O =O O H H Everything so far Alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes Isomers, halogenated and cyclic -OH *R means any carbon chain

Alcohols Carboxylic Acids R-OH R-C=O -ol -oic acid -al Ketones R-C-R =O

Aldehydes on the end R=O -one Predicting organic reactions Addition reactions occur by adding halogens or hydrogen to alkene or alkynes. In the reaction, the new molecule

takes the place of the double or triple bond. Cl2 + CH3-CH=CH2 CH3-CClH- CClH2 example 1- butene is reacted with fluorine C4 H8 + F2 C4H8F2 Predicting organic reactions Substitution reactions occur by

adding halogens to an alkane. In the reaction, the new molecule takes the place of a hydrogen. Cl2 + CH3-CH3 CH3-CClH2 + HCl Cl2 + C2H6 C2ClH5 + HCl Predicting organic reactions Combustion reactions occur when an organic compound is burned in

oxygen. The products of a complete combustion are water vapor and carbon dioxide. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O+ 6 CO2 Predicting organic reactions Esterification reactions Made by reacting carboxylic acids with alcohols. Carboxylic acid

+ H-O-R R-C-O-R alcohol O= O= R-C-O-H

Ester + H-O-H Examples Fluorine is added to 1 propene Ethanol is burned in oxygen Chlorine is added to propane Ethanoic acid is reacted with 1-butanol What is petroleum? Also known as crude oil

It is a thick black sludge It comes from ancient plant and animal life long since buried and kept under extreme pressure for millions of years. It is composed of countless different organic compounds. What is made from petroleum Gasoline, kerosene, and rocket fuel Most plastics and other polymers

(elastomers and fibers) Synthetic rubbers and fabrics Most pharmaceutical drugs And several other things If we run out of petroleum it would have a devastating effect on us One compound that comes from petroleum Benzene Which has the resonance structure It also is drawn

as Compounds that contain benzene are called aromatic Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) O-H O= O O Compounds that contain benzene are

called aromatic Trinitro Toluene (TNT) - NO2 O2N- O2N- A few other aromatics Vinyl, napthalene (found in moth balls), acetaminophen, penacillin

Benzene is an extremely common organic compound The fact that the double bonds flip back and forth (called resonance) give it a very stable structure Polymerization Esters Esters- a functional group in the O=

middle of a carbon chain; R-COO-R It gets the suffix oate is very similar to carboxylic acids ~In fact, it is formed by a carboxylic acid and an alcohol R-C-O-R O= O= R-C-O-H H-O-R +

R-C-O-R + H-O-H the water came from Now if you have a few compounds that have both a O= O= O= O=

Carboxylic acid end + H-O-H +an alcohol end R-C-OR-C-O-H H-OR-C-O-H H-OR-C-O-H H-O+ They could form an ester that looks like But the compound still has a Carboxylic acid endAnd an alcohol end So it could repeat this process thousands even millions of times and make a whole bunch

of poly esters Of course, the scientific prefix for whole This is the basis for a polymer Polymer-A large chain-like molecule composed of smaller molecules linked together The smaller units it is made up of are called monomers

monomers need to have ends that can join together (or stack on top of one another) Like an extension cord or markers So you could (infinitely) join them together to make a large polymer Polymers can get very large common polymers have a molecular mass of around 50,000 g/mol The first molecules seen under a

microscope were polymer chains Common polymers include things like Nylon, Kevlar, latex, PVC, rubber, acrylic, vinyl, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and carbohydrates Piece of DNA Polymers are put into three classes ElastomersPolymers that can be stretched to

10x their normal size and return to their original shape Elastic Plastics Fibers Polymers that Polymers can that

stretch and flex cannot more than stretch fibers or be reshaped but less than Elastomers once Polypropylene formed polystyrene Nylon andand PVC

(polyvinyl chloride Acrylic Biochemistry Elements in the body About 96% of the mass of the human body is made up of 4 elements Oxygen 65% carbon 18% hydrogen 10% nitrogen 3%

The only other elements that make up a significant portion are: Calcium 1.5% Phosphorus 1.2% Water Of course, the vast majority of the oxygen is found in water. Water is essential for life. It is what all chemical reactions in the body occur in. However, water is not considered a

biochemical or organic compound. Organisms are not bonded to water, instead water is contained within the organism. If we remove water Then the human body is made up of 37% carbon 30% oxygen 18% hydrogen 6.2% nitrogen

3.1% calcium 2.5% Phosphorus Elements Essential to Life The green elements are called trace elements because they make up less than .05%. Uses of elements Carbon is a requirement for all biochemical compounds

Nitrogen is needed for proteins Iron is needed for using oxygen http://www.mii.org/periodic/LifeElement.ht ml Biochemical Compounds These elements are bonded together to form different biochemical compounds. Biochemical compounds include: Proteins Carbohydrates

Nucleic acids Lipids Proteins Proteins are polymers made up of monomers called amino acids. Amino acids have a carboxylic acid end and an amine (NH2) end. Bonding an amine group and carboxylic acid is called a peptide bond.

Amino acid to protein Peptide bond R is any carbon chain O= H-N-R-C- N-R-C-O-H H- Amine Carboxylic

Group Acid Protein O= H- + O= H-N-R-C-O-H H-

H-N-R-C-O-H O= Amino acid H- Amino acid This has to repeat at + H-O-H least 50x for it to be a protein

Otherwise it is just a polypeptide. Amino acids Proteins A protein is at least 50 amino acids linked together. This makes proteins very large molecules. Most have a molar mass between

6000-1,000,000 g/mol. Protein Structure Proteins naturally fold into distinct 3-D structures. It is based off of a few different aspects. Primary structure of proteins is the amino acid sequence. 3 letter or one letter abbreviations are used for each amino acid. gly-cys-met-aspGlycine-cytoseine-methionine-aspartic acid-

Secondary structures The secondary structure is local structures formed throughout the molecule. Alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, and turns are common formations. Alpha helix is when the molecules start to spiral around. Beta pleated sheet is when the molecules take a jagged back and forth formation. Turns are when the chain flips directions.

Triose Phosphate Isomerase Alpha helix Turns Beta pleated sheet Tertiary Structure of proteins Tertiary structure- the overall structure of the protein. This greatly effects the function

of the protein. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze certain reactions. Enzymes work at specific spots on a protein. Other functions of proteins Structure- Tendons, bones, skin, cartilage, hair, are mainly protein Movement- Muscles are mainly protein Transport- hemoglobin, a protein,

carries oxygen to cells from the lungs Protection- antibodies that fight off foreign substances are proteins Control- many hormones such as insulin are proteins. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are second class of biochemical compounds. They are commonly polymers made up of monomer units called simple sugars or monosaccharides.

Simple sugars are ketones or aldehydes with several OH (hydroxyl) groups attached. D Glucose Bonding These sugars normally bend around to form rings. Then they link together. Two sugars bonded together are called a disaccharide.

Sucrose (common table sugar) is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sucrose Polysaccharides Polysaccharides are large molecules made of many simple sugars. Starch is the main fuel reservoir in plants. Cellulose is the main structural component for plants.

Both are polysaccharides, but because of different types of bonds, humans are only capable of digesting starch not cellulose. Glycogen Animals, and humans, store carbohydrates as glycogen. These are large polysaccharide molecules that are broken down into simple sugars as you need them.

Carbohydrates Uses In animals, carbohydrates are used as fuel sources. Plants uses carbohydrates as both a fuel source and structural support. Nucleic Acids The biochemical polymer that stores and transmits genetic information in a cell is a polymer called deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA.

DNA carries the instructions for making a specific protein. Ribonucleic Acid, RNA is needed to translate and copy DNA. Nucleic acids Nucleic acids are polymers made up of nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogen containing base, a 5 carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. In DNA, the sugar is deoxyribose. In

RNA the sugar is ribose. Phosphate is PO42The bases are one of 5 organic compounds Deoxyribose Ribose Nitrogen Bases DNA Structure DNA forms a double helix structure.

That is two complementary strands wrapped around one another is a spiral fashion. The sugar and phosphate form the backbone, while the bases from the rungs. The strands are complimentary because the bases must always be matched up. Adenine and thymine will form a stable hydrogen bond. Guanine and cytosine will also form a stable hydrogen bond. These bases must always be matched up.

DNA Structure DNA replication When DNA replicates it unwinds and complimentary bases Adenine Thymine Guanine- Cytosine Are added to a new daughter strand. Protein synthesis DNA is instructions for building a protein. The DNA is decoded by messenger RNA,

mRNA. mRNA then carries the information to the ribosome of a cell. Transfer RNA, tRNA, then adds specific amino acids in order to build the protein. Lipids Lipids are biochemical compounds defined by being insoluble in water. There are 4 classes of Lipids: Fatty Acids

Waxes Phospholipids Steroids Fatty Acids Fatty acids are carboxylic acid chains. Vegetable oil and animal fats are triglycerides. Triglycerides- esters of glycerol bound to 3 fatty acids The primary function of triglycerides is

storage of energy. These fats can be saturated (with hydrogen) They can also be unsaturated, meaning they have double bonds decreasing the amount of hydrogen. Triglycerides Phospholipids Phospholipids are similar to triglycerides but only have 2 fatty acids instead of 3. They also have a phosphate group attached to

the glycerol. Phospholipids are needed in cell membranes. Waxes Waxes are long carbon chain esters. They are solids at room temperature. They provide water proof coatings on leaves. They are used in crayons, lip stick, candles, and a variety of other things. Steroids

Steroids are a class of lipids that have a characteristic 4 carbon rings linked together. Common Steroids Cholesterol- starting material for many steroid molecules. A build up of cholesterol in the arteries has been linked to heart attacks Testosterone- male sex hormone Progesterone/Estrogen- female sex hormones

Cortisone- reduces inflammation pain and swelling

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