Game Plan -

Game Plan -

2020 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman C. Robyn Fischer National Event Supervisor Event Rules 2020

DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules. Event Rules 2020 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2020 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH

COMPETITION LEVEL SOSI TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point content overview 6 Training Handouts overview, general principles, each section of competition Sample Tournament sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips

Coral Reef extras Online textbook SO WEBSITE TRAINING MATERIALS EVENT RESOURCES the Science Olympiad website under Event Information-will be posted throughout the fall Training Power Point content overview Internet Resource links to good resources for learning content Training Handouts overview, general principles Sample Tournament sample problems with key

Event Supervisor Guide prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Training CDs the Science Olympiad Store at Biology-Earth Science CD (BECD) current year topics for all bio events with training materials and extra resources Water Quality CD all content, extra resources, exams for freshwater, estuary & marine systems Division B and Division C Test Packets national exams from the previous year Game Plan 1. Use the POWERPOINT for an overview

2. Study the HANDOUTS for background information and content 3. Use the INTERNET RESOURCES and CDS for more help see the Science Olympiad National website at under event information and the Science Olympiad store 4. Prepare a RESOURCE BINDER and use OTHER TOOLS to LEARN THE CONTENT FOR EACH SECTION OF THE COMPETITION AND MAKE YOUR SALINOMETER 5. Prepare your ONE PAGE OF NOTES for effective use in competition 6. Do PRACTICE ACTIVITIES to prepare for doing a competition 7. Do the SAMPLE TOURNAMENT under timed conditions to experience being timed in competition.

8. Prepare and do PRACTICE STATIONS, OLD TESTS, and INVITATIONALS to master knowledge, teamwork, and using your page of notes effectively under timed conditions. Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater - 2019 Lotic ecosystems flowing water Streams Rivers Lentic ecosystems still water Ponds

Lakes Wetlands Estuary ecosystems 2020 Marine ecosystems 2020 Coral Reef Ecology 2020 EVENT COMPONENTS Ecology Content 2020 Part 1 Estuary and Marine Ecology Part 2 Coral Reef Ecology Part 3 Water Monitoring and Analysis

Part 4- Salinometer Process skills in data, graph and diagram analysis Event parameters check the event parameters in the rules for resources allowed. Part 1: Estuary and Marine Ecology Areas such as: Aquatic Ecology in Marine/Estuary Environments Aquatic Food Chains and Webs Population Dynamics

Community Interactions Nutrient Recycling Water Cycle Threats to Marine & Estuary Water Quality General Principles of Aquatic Ecology ECOLOGY how organisms interact with one another and with their environment ENVIRONMENT living and non-living components

ABIOTIC non-living component or physical factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures BIOTIC living component are other organisms. Marine Ecology Abiotic Non-living part of the environment Biotic

Living part of the environment interdependence of all organisms living in the ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the seashore Marine Abiotic Factors

water salinity

light pressure temperature dissolved gases pH tides currents waves substratum nutrient supply exposure to air

Water Cycle 97 % of the water on earth is salt water in the ocean. Of the 3% of water that is fresh water, 2% is frozen in ice caps and only 1% is usable by organisms as liquid water or water vapor found in lakes, rivers, streams, ponds , in the ground water, and as vapor in the atmosphere Unique Qualities of Pure Water The Unique Nature of Pure Water Water is 775 times as dense as air at 0 o C Water is found on earth in three forms

liquid, solid and gas Density maximum density is at 4o C not at freeing point of 0 o C and expands as it freezes so ice floats The H20 molecule is polar and hydrogen bonding is present Water is a polar molecule; one end is positively charged and the other is negatively charged Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water (surface

tension) is very high Salt Water Features The oceans consist of (by mass): 96.5% water 3.0% sodium and chlorine ions (table

salt, Na+ and Cl) 0.5% other salts Marine Environments Marine Regions Food Chain Producer

1st order Consumer or Herbivore 2nd order Consumer or 1st order Carnivore 3rd order Consumer or 2nd order Carnivore 4th order Consumer or 3rd order Carnivore Decomposers consume dead and decaying matter as bacteria

Marine Food Web Ecologic Pyramids Ecological pyramid - a graph representing trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The primary producer level is at the base of the pyramid with the consumer levels above. Numbers pyramid - compares the number of individuals in each trophic level. May be inverted due to size of individuals

Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight of the organisms in each trophic level. Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of energy available in each trophic level. This energy is usually measured in kilocalories. Trophic Pyramids-Marine The 10% rule for Energy Pyramids Carbon, Nitrogen & Phosphorus Cycles

Threats to Marine Ecosystems Oil spills and their ecological disasters Marine dumping of wastes plastic and other wastes Dredging Wastes Overfishing Ocean acidification reducing calcium carbonate Population displacement Mangrove Destruction

Bycatch marine wildlife unintentionally caught as sea turtles, porpoises, albatross, crabs, starfish & fish Whaling is still a problem though strides are being make Threats to Ocean Health

Marine Pollution Habitat Destruction Overfishing and Exploitation Climate Change Sea Temperature Rise Ocean Acidification

Invasive Species Ocean Dead Zones Estuaries The areas of water and shoreline where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean Estuaries can be partially enclosed body of water (such as bays, lagoons, sounds or sloughs) where two different bodies of water meet and mix

They often bordered by salt marshes or intertidal mudflats Salinity varies within the estuary from nearly fresh water to ocean water Importance of Estuaries Of the 32 largest cities in the world, 22 are located on estuaries Many animal species rely on estuaries for nesting and breeding Most of the fish and shellfish eaten in the United States,

including salmon, herring, and oysters, complete at least part of their life cycles in estuaries Estuaries filter out sediments and pollutants from rivers and streams before they flow into the ocean, providing cleaner waters for humans and marine life Humans also rely on estuaries for recreation, jobs, and even our homes Coastal development, introduction of invasive species, over fishing, dams, and global climate change have led to a decline in the health of estuaries, making them one of the most threatened ecosystems on Earth

Estuary Classification Estuaries can be classified according to their water circulation: The amount of circulation affects the salt distribution and salinity concentrations salt-wedge vertically mixed fjord slightly stratified

freshwater Common Estuary Habitats oyster reefs kelp forests rocky and soft shorelines submerged aquatic vegetation coastal marshes

mangroves forests deepwater swamps and riverine forests mud flats tidal streams barrier beaches salt marshes Adaptation of Organisms Physiological adaptations How organisms adapt to the environment by

changes in metabolism, behavior and other characteristics. The genes of the organism remains unchanged The adaptation is not passed onto its progeny Evolutionary adaptations Over generations, species adapt to the environment through natural selection. Genetic differences of an individual organism that makes it better adapted to

its environment are passed onto the organisms progeny Adaptations of Estuary Organisms Salinity, temperature, water levels and light levels vary along the length of an estuary shutting up shells, digging borrows and excretion of excess salts fish maintain water balance by actively drinking salt water increasing their respiratory water flow and increase

oxygen consumption mechanisms to deal with high energy winds and waves most efficient tree is low, with numerous crowded branches the tree may include flattening of the trunk, root and branches in a plan parallel to the wind direction Estuary Organisms & Survival Estuary Food Web

Threats to Estuaries Too many nutrients Pathogens

Toxic chemicals Habitat loss Invasive Species Changes in water flow EPA Point and Non-Point Pollution Sources Pollutants pose a large threat to estuarine

organisms Pollutants are introduced into estuaries from either point sources or non-point sources. Point sources are clearly defined, localized inputs such as pipes, industrial plants, sewer systems, oil spills from tankers, and aquaculture ventures. Non-point sources are indistinct inputs that do not have a clearly defined source, such as runoff of petroleum products from roadways or pesticides from farmland. A majority of pollutants find their way into

estuaries from non-point sources Non-point sources are harder to detect and control Reduction of pollution requires substantial individual and collective efforts The federal and state governments regulate them. Estuary Preservation Ensuring the health of our estuaries is vital to the survival of the plant and animal communities

To preserve our estuaries, the National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established to protect more than 1.3 million acres of estuarine habitat for long-term research, monitoring, education, and stewardship throughout the coastal United States. Part 2: Coral Reef Ecology Examine coral reefs and the effects of pollution on reef ecosystems

Topics that may be included are coral reef biology growth and reproduction zooxanthellae reef fish communities reef ecosystem health indicators the importance of coral reefs problems associated with pollution management of reef systems

Coral Polyp Stony corals are the major reef architects. These small marine animals, (individual organisms are called polyps), produce a hard skeleton made of calcium carbonate, which they extract from the seawater and combine with CO2 for limestone Other reef building organisms include fire corals, blue & pipe corals, coralline algae, Coral Life Cycle

First stage of the corals life cycle is planula larvae, which allows it to be free swimming. Second stage of its life is polyp which is when the coral is stuck to a rock. In the polyp stage, it is able to reproduce, either asexual - involves the splitting of a coral (called fission) or sprouting another coral from itself (called budding).

sexually (with another polyp) involves a cycle of: SPAWNING >> FERTILIZING >> PLANULAE LARVAE SETTLEMENT >> CLONING Symbiosis Coral & Zooxanthellae Coral Polyp provides a home for the zooxanthellae, it provides nitrates and

phosphates, and it gives off CO2 Zooxanthellae, a dinoflagellate carries out photosynthesis and make oxygen and food for the polyp through photosynthesis, gain nutrients from the corals nitrogen and phosphorus wastes, and provide for most of the colors for the coral in the reef making them look like underwater gardens

Coral Reef Regions Requirements for Reef Formation Solid structure for the base with a hard substrate for attachment Warm water temperatures > 20C (68F) and oceanic salinities High Light Levels Clear waters with high water transparency Low nutrient waters - low in phosphate

and nitrogen nutrients Good water circulation with moderate wave action to disperse wastes and bring oxygen and plankton to the reef Coral Reef Development Zones of a Coral Biome Shore or inner reef zone - area is between the crest and the shorelinefull of life including fishes, sea cucumbers, starfish, and anemones.

Crest reef zone - highest point of the reef and where the waves break over the reef. Fore or outer reef zone - As the reef wall falls off, the waters get calmer. Around 30 feet deep, will be the most populated part of the reef along with lots of different types of coral species. Coral Reef Organisms Coral reefs are inhabited by thousands of species

including: Algae Sponges Soft corals Sea slugs Urchins and star fish Worms Crabs and lobster Snails Clams, scallops, and barnacles

Fish Sea turtles Sharks and rays Coral Reef Food Web Coral Reef Fish Communities Coral Reef Importance Fishery and nursery

areas (food) Tourism, recreation Potential medicines Coastal protection Coral Reef Health Indicators Marine Apex Predators Biomass Average Catch Length Coral Cover Indicator Organisms

INDICATOR ORGANISMS Reef Check Reef%20Check%20Report.pdf/RC_report_FINAL_2.p df Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network-http :// -publication/status-of-coral-reefs-of-the-world-2008 /

al-reefs-of-the-world/ Healthy vs. Badly Damaged Reef Coral Reef Threats Chemical pollutants Excess nutrients Sedimentation Coral bleaching Coral diseases Climate change and ocean

acidification Overfishing Coral Reefs Threats Healthy vs. Damaged Reef Coral Reef Management Fisheries regulation Marine protected areas Coastal zoning

The problem of ecosystem phase-shifts (how if corals die and area is taken over by algae, it achieves a new steady state and is very difficult for corals to recolonize) Coral Reef Restoration Programs Several restorations programs are operating with much success Hawaii program Florida Program NOAA

Part 3: Water Monitoring Understand and interpret data related to testing procedures and purposes for water testing (No actual testing) Part 4: Salinometer Build and demonstrate a salinometer capable of testing saltwater (1-10%)

Chemical Analysis Salinity - only actual testing with salinometer in Part 4 Temperature Aragonite Saturation - for marine esp. coral reefs pH Turbidity Light Saturation in marine environments Dissolved oxygen Biochemical oxygen demand Phosphates Nitrates

Total solids Fecal Coliform Their relationship to one another note: the Water Quality Index used for freshwater does not apply to marine. Regions have their own marine water quality index. Part 4: Salinomter Salinometers-calibrated to read in % of

salt concentration Materials soda straw modeling clay a fine-tipped permanent marker a tall clear container to hold the solution for calibrating your device

salt for mixing one or more standard solutions water (tap water will work-distilled is better) SALINOMETER TIPS The narrow the diameter of the salinometer, the higher the water will rise this make calibration easier. Small plastic pipettes instead of the straw and clay work well. Hold the pipette upside down, cut the

opening to make it wider and weight it putting sand into the bulb. Cover the opening with tape or clay so the sand wont get wet when you calibrate it. Measuring electronic conduction (the more salt the more electricity is conducted) is another possibility just be sure that the device is made by the team

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