Game-based learning framework - University at Buffalo

Game-based learning framework - University at Buffalo

Game-based learning framework Click on a topic to learn more Learning Learning objectives Assessment Instruction GAME ELEMENTS: Context User learning User engagement Instructional design GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics Clear player goals User behavior Debriefing Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Learning objectives Learningobjectives state what an educator Instruction Learning wants the learner to learn. Assessment Five categories of learning in and around games: Learning objectives GAME ELEMENTS: Context User learning GAME ELEMENTS: Learner Specifics 1. Things we can learn in the game, as deliberately designed by games creators. Clear player 2. Things

goals we must learn in a game (to successfully finish the game); a subset of the first category. User engagement Instructional design User behavior 3. Collateral learning; other things we can learnthese are not necessarily designed into the game. Debriefing 4. Things we actually learn. GAMEdid ELEMENTS: Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy Representation Learning System 5. content Cheats; deliberate design elements on the part of the designers, but not feedback really considered part of the normal gameplay. van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Clear player goals Learning Assessment Instruction Goals in the game do not necessarily equate to the learning Learning GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: objectives and are therefore mentioned separately. objectives User learning Learner Specifics Context Clear player goals Win-criteria for a game necessarily equate with the

User do not Instructional User behavior engagement design things players are supposed to learn through playing the Debriefing game. Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Learning content Learning Assessment Instruction Successful pairing of instructional content with appropriate Learning GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: game features results in recurring and self-motivated objectives User learning Learner Specifics Context gameplay. This continual process eventually leads to specific Clear player goals learning outcomes,User often reinforced Instructional by debriefing and a User behavior engagement design

blended approach. Debriefing Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Context Learning Fantasy The make-believe aspects of the game; environment, scenarios (narrative), the role(s) of the player, nonplayer characters (game agents) that can be interacted with. Exogenous fantasy is a direct overlay on learning content. It is dependent upon the skill, but the skill does not depend on the fantasy. Endogenous fantasy is related to learning content. It is an essential relationship between the learned skill and the fantasy context (engaging and educational). (Habgood et al., 2005) Learning objectives ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: Goals and objectives describe the games win conditions. GAME In this capacity they provide motivation for actions within the game. The games objectives can either be absolute (unchanging) or subject to change, depending User learning Learner Specifics Context on specific circumstances, scenarios, and player actions. Goals/Objectives Language/ Clear player Communication goals Mystery Instruction Assessment

Specific lingual or communication rules of the game. The gap between available information and unknown information. Mystery provides puzzlement and Usercuriosity, and isInstructional complexity, triggers enhanced by surprise and unpredictability User behavior (random elements). engagement design Pieces or Players The game pieces (objects) or people that are included in the game scenario. This includes game items, player characters (avatars), and real-life human participants. Player Composition The organization of players in a game; individual, as a team, multiple individuals (multiplayer), orDebriefing multiple teams. Rules Player Rules constitute the inner, formal structure of games. Rules impose on player action. The rules also set GAME ELEMENTS: GAMElimits ELEMENTS: up potential actions, actions that are meaningful inside the game, but meaningless outside. Rules specify feedback Representation limitations and affordances. Rules establish criteria for how to win.Pedagogy Learning content Theme The setting or context of the game. A game is a thematically driven experience. System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Learner Specifics Challenge Learning Learning objectives The amount of difficulty Instruction and probability of obtaining goals a playerAssessment has within the game. A challenging game possesses multiple clearly specified goals,

progressive difficulty, and informational ambiguity. Challenge adds fun and competition by creating barriers between current state and GAME ELEMENTS: goalGAME state.ELEMENTS: Combined with feedback, it provides a systematic balance of Userlearner learning difficultyContext that changes as the progresses. Learner Specifics Clear player goals Conflict Solvable problems that the player is confronted with within the game and that User Instructional Userby behavior usually drive the games plot or in-game action providing interaction. engagement design Conflict can be provided by the game itself (e.g., puzzles), by autonomous game agents (e.g., enemies), and by other players. Debriefing Progress Learning content TheGAME measure of how the player progresses inGAME achieving the goals (win Player ELEMENTS: ELEMENTS: conditions) of the game. feedback Representation Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Representation Action-Domain Link The story of the game consists of situations where the learner needs to apply the knowledge he gains from playing the game. This includes a close enough link to reality so that learners easily see how to apply knowledge

to the real world. Control The players possibilities for active and direct manipulation of specific aspects of the game. In order to exert control, the learner needs to be active in making decisions in the story. Abundant learner control gives the player a sense of unrestricted options. Learning Learning Interaction objectives (Equipment) Assessment Instruction GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: The adaptability and manipulability ofUser a game. The game changes in response to players actions. (Wilson et al., learning Learner Specifics Context 2009) Interaction Face-to-face interaction, relationships between players in real space and time. It provides an opportunity for achievements to be acknowledged by others, and challenges become meaningful, which induces involvement. (Wilson et al., 2009) Interaction (Social) Interpersonal activity by technology, which encourages entertaining communal gatherings by Userthat is mediatedInstructional producing a sense of belonging. (Wilson et al., 2009) User behavior Location The physical or virtual environment in which the game takes place; thus linked to fantasy. Location influences rules and solution parameters. Problem-Learner Link The way in which the games location, theme and story relate to the learners interests. It makes the game Debriefing relevant to the player. Representation The players perception of the games reality, as the game allows. A more narrow scope of representation Player GAME ELEMENTS:

provides a player with focus; a broader scope of representation GAME providesELEMENTS: a player with distractions. Sensory Stimuli Learning The games presentation stimulates players senses and tap into the players emotions, allowing for aSystem (temporary) acceptance of the games reality (fantasy, location, theme) by feedback the player. Clear player (Interpersonal) goals content engagement Representation design feedback Pedagogy van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Pedagogy Adaptation Learning The level of difficulty of the game gradually increases, or adjusts to the skill level of the Assessment Instruction player. Assessment Learning /Feedback objectives The measurement of achievement within the game (e.g., scoring). The game gives the GAME ELEMENTS: ELEMENTS: learnerGAME feedback on the outcomes of his actions. This provides users with opportunities to User learning learn from previous actions. Scoring

also compares performance among competing players. Learner Specifics Context Clear player Debriefing/ goals Evaluation To utilize opportunities for learning, an evaluative session (the debriefing) is held after the game. In the evaluation, the players and the facilitator/teacher talk about the experiences and outcomes ofUser the game. The Instructional individual player can be evaluated, the players can be behavior evaluated asengagement a team, or they can be evaluated both User as a team and as individual players. design Instructions /Help/Hints Helpful comments, tutorials, and other hints the game provides in order to get a player started quickly, to get him/her out of a difficult situation, or to get him/her quickly acquainted with newly introduced aspects of a game. Debriefing Safety The lack of real-world consequencesPlayer that actions within theELEMENTS: game have; the only GAME ELEMENTS: GAME consequence is a possible loss of dignity when losing. This provides players with a safe way feedback Representation Pedagogy to experience the reality, as presented in the game. It allows for risk-taking and System experimentation, thus providing players with more learning opportunities. feedback Learning content van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. User learning Learning Assessment Instruction Attention needs to be paid to the game learning cycle, which consists of user

behavior, user feedback, user engagement, and user learning. The Learning GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: objectives User learning Learner Specifics instructional designContext needs to be such that user actions are given sufficient Clear player feedback to trigger engagement, leading to learning. goals User engagement Instructional design User behavior Debriefing Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. User behavior Learning Assessment Instruction Attention needs to be paid to the game learning cycle, which consists of user behavior, user feedback, user engagement, and user learning. The instructional Learning GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: objectives User learning Specifics design needs to be such that user actions are given Learner

sufficient feedback to trigger Context engagement, leading to learning. Clear player goals User Instructional User behavior engagement design An example of user behavior would be time on task. The amount of time a user spends engaged in a particular task. Debriefing Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Player feedback Learning Assessment Instruction The measurement of achievement, progress, and score of the player within a Learning game. The game gives the learner feedback on the outcomes of his GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: objectives User learning Learner Specifics Context actions (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004; Juul, 2005; Wilson et al., 2009). Clear player goals User of feedback Instructional The reflective observation leads to User the behavior construction of engagement

design schemata and enables the player to discover new and better solutions to Debriefing his problems Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. User engagement Learning Assessment Games are designed to generateInstruction a positive affect in players and are most successful and engaging, thus intrinsically motivating, when they facilitate the flow experience (Gee, 2003; Salen & Zimmerman, 2004; Kiili, 2005; Learning GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: objectives User learning Schell, 2008). Learner Specifics Context Difficulty Clear player Flow describes a state of complete goals absorption or engagement in an InstructionalAnxiety User User behavior activity and refers toengagement the optimal design experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; WBoredom O 1990). During optimal experience, L Debriefing F a person is in a psychological state

Player GAME ELEMENTS: where he or sheGAME is soELEMENTS: involved withfeedback Representation Pedagogy Learning System the goal-driven activity that nothing Player Ability content feedback else seems to matter. van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. Debriefing Learning Assessment Instruction To utilize opportunities for learning, an evaluative session (the debriefing) is Learning held after theGAME game. In the evaluation, the players and the GAME ELEMENTS: ELEMENTS: objectives User learning Learner Specifics Context facilitator/teacher talk about the experiences and outcomes of the game. Clear player The individual player can be evaluated, the players can be evaluated as a goals User Instructional team, or they can be evaluated both as a team User andbehavior as individual players. engagement design Debriefing Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback

GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29. System feedback Learning Assessment Instruction The measurement of achievement, progress, and score of the player within a game. The game gives the learner feedback on the outcomes of his actions (Salen & Learning GAME ELEMENTS: GAME ELEMENTS: objectives learning Zimmerman, 2004; Juul, 2005; WilsonUser et al., 2009). Learner Specifics Context Clear player goals The reflective observation of feedback leads to the construction of schemata and User Instructional User behavior engagement design solutions to his problems enables the player to discover new and better Debriefing Learning content GAME ELEMENTS: Representation Player feedback GAME ELEMENTS: Pedagogy System feedback van Staalduinen, J. P., & de Freitas, S. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Framework: Linking Game Design and Learning. Learning to play: exploring the future of education with video games, 53, 29.

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