French-English Relations: From New France to 1944

French-English Relations: From New France to 1944

French-English Relations: From New France to 1944 CHC2DI New France 2 Reasons to Colonize: 1. Economic Expansion (fur trade, timber, shipbuilding)

2. Exploration (try to find closer route to Far East) Who made up the society of New France ? Farmers, Roman Catholic Clergy, Army, fur traders Feudal system in effect (farmers pay % of

crop to Lord and 10% to Church) British Conquest 1759 on the Plains of Abraham After conquest the French Army leaves, the British Army stays, French citizens stay - the British attempt to anglicize and assimilate them (insist they speak English, bring in British

colonists, diminish influence of Catholicism) New France becomes Quebec The Quebec Act 1774 Why ? keep Quebecers happy to prevent them from joining the rebellion in the 13 colonies (America)

1. Official recognition of French language 2. Permits Catholics to hold office 3. Permitted to practice Catholicism and clergy can collect tithe 4. Keep French civil laws 5. Gives Quebec land west of 13 colonies Confederation 1867

French-Canadians worry about losing identity, language, educations, culture The British respond with Section 92 of the B.N.A. Act , which gives provinces control over many matters (education, etc. - the irony is) How do the following

events impact French English relations in Canada ? Red River Rebellion 1869-70 Louis Riel and Metis concerns provisional government Thomas Scott, the Orangemen and the surveyors The Execution of Thomas Scott

Riel escapes to the U.S. Northwest Rebellion 1885 After selling or abandoning their land in Manitoba, many Metis move Northwest to Saskatchewan in search of wide open spaces

Canadian government decides to expand there next - Riel returns to lead the fight starts peaceful, but the Feds dont notice the protests and petitions fight breaks out between the Metis and the Northwest Mounted Police, several officers are killed Riel is arrested and put on trial, then

found guilty and hanged Manitoba Schools Question In 1870 Manitoba was mostly Frenchspeaking and Catholic. As part of Confederation they were promised Catholic Francophone schools would be supported by provincial government funds. By 1890 there are more English-speaking Protestants, and the provincial government

cuts funds to French Catholic schools. 1896 - compromise is reached (last 30 minutes of school day is for religious instruction, if more than 10 Frenchspeaking students a French teacher must be hired) Conscription Crisis I 1917 P.M. Borden asked for more men by British

command, so he passes the Military Service Act which means all men 21-45 must join army Rest of Canada is upset before this because Quebec has the lowest enlistment Quebec is upset with this Act because they see it as a European War - riots break out in Montreal and Quebec City

Conscription Crisis II P.M. King promises no conscription in 1940 By 1942 casualties are outnumbering enlisted men, so King holds a referendum to release him from his promise Result - 78% Canadians vote yes (but in

Quebec only 28% vote yes) Conscription Bill passes

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