FMEA-a short lesson - worldcolleges.info

FMEA-a short lesson - worldcolleges.info

FMEA Failure Mode Effects Analysis AGENDA Ice breaker Opening DFMEA Break DFMEA exercise Lunch PFMEA Break PFMEA Exercise FMEA Jeopardy

Closing and Survey Quality and Reliability Quality is a relative term often based on customer perception or the degree to which a product meets customer expectations Manufacturers have long recognized that products can meet specifications and still fail to satisfy customer expectations due to: Errors in design Flaws induced by the manufacturing process Environment Product misuse Not understanding customer wants/needs Quality, Reliability and Failure Prevention Traditionally quality activities have focused on detecting manufacturing and material defects that cause failures early in the life cycle Today, activities focus on failures that occur beyond the infant mortality stage Emphasis on Failure Prevention Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

(FMEA) FMEA is a systematic method of identifying and preventing system, product and process problems before they occur FMEA is focused on preventing problems, enhancing safety, and increasing customer satisfaction Ideally, FMEAs are conducted in the product design or process development stages, although conducting an FMEA on existing products or processes may also yield benefits FMEA/FMECA History The history of FMEA/FMECA goes back to the early 1950s and 1960s. U.S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, followed by the Bureau of Naval Weapons: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): Department of Defense developed and revised the MIL-STD-1629A guidelines during the 1970s. FMEA/FMECA History (continued) Ford Motor Company published instruction

manuals in the 1980s and the automotive industry collectively developed standards in the 1990s. Engineers in a variety of industries have adopted and adapted the tool over the years. Published Guidelines J1739 from the SAE for the automotive industry. AIAG FMEA-3 from the Automotive Industry Action Group for the automotive industry. ARP5580 from the SAE for nonautomotive applications. Other Guidelines Introduction Other industry and company-specific guidelines exist. For example: EIA/JEP131 provides guidelines for the electronics industry, from the JEDEC/EIA. P-302-720 provides guidelines for NASAs GSFC spacecraft and instruments.

SEMATECH 92020963A-ENG for the semiconductor equipment industry. Etc FMEA is a Tool FMEA is a tool that allows you to: Prevent System, Product and Process problems before they occur reduce costs by identifying system, product and process improvements early in the development cycle Create more robust processes Prioritize actions that decrease risk of failure Evaluate the system,design and processes from a new vantage point A Systematic Process FMEA provides a systematic process to: Identify and evaluate potential failure modes potential causes of the failure mode Identify and quantify the impact of potential failures Identify and prioritize actions to reduce or eliminate the potential failure Implement action plan based on assigned

responsibilities and completion dates Document the associated activities Purpose/Benefit cost effective tool for maximizing and documenting the collective knowledge, experience, and insights of the engineering and manufacturing community format for communication across the disciplines provides logical, sequential steps for specifying product and process areas of concern Benefits of FMEA Contributes to improved designs for products and processes. Higher reliability Better quality Increased safety Enhanced customer satisfaction Contributes to cost savings. Decreases development time and re-design costs Decreases warranty costs Decreases waste, non-value added operations Contributes to continuous improvement

Benefits Cost benefits associated with FMEA are usually expected to come from the ability to identify failure modes earlier in the process, when they are less expensive to address. rule of ten If the issue costs $100 when it is discovered in the field, then It may cost $10 if discovered during the final test But it may cost $1 if discovered during an incoming inspection. Even better it may cost $0.10 if discovered during the design or process engineering phase. FMEA as Historical Record Communicate the logic of the engineers and related design and process considerations Are indispensable resources for new engineers and future design and process decisions. System

Design Components Subsystems Main Systems Components Subsystems Main Systems Focus: Minimize failure effects on the System Objectives/Goal: Maximize System Quality, reliability, Cost and maintenance Process Manpower Machine Method Material Measurement

Environment Focus: Minimize failure effects on the Design Objectives/Goal: Maximize Design Quality, reliability, Cost and maintenance Machines Focus: Minimize failure effects on the Processes Tools, Work Stations, Production Lines, Operator Training, Processes, Gauges

Objectives/Goal: Maximize Total Process Quality, reliability, Cost and maintenance Why do FMEAs? Examine the system for failures. Ensure the specs are clear and assure the product works correctly ISO requirement-Quality Planning ensuring the compatibility of the design, the production process, installation, servicing, inspection and test procedures, and the applicable documentation What tools are available to meet our objective?

Benchmarking customer warranty reports design checklist or guidelines field complaints internal failure analysis internal test standards lessons learned returned material reports Expert knowledge What are possible outcomes? Actual/potential failure modes customer and legal design requirements duty cycle requirements product functions key product characteristics

Product Verification and Validation How to FmeaThe Pre-Team Meeting Prior to assembling the entire team, it may be useful to arrange a meeting between two or three key engineers This could include persons responsible for design, quality, and testing. How to FMEA.. (cont.) The purpose of this meeting is to: Determine scope Gather background reference material Create update block diagrams Identify team members Prepare an agenda, schedule, milestones Identify item functions, failure modes and their effects Assumptions of DFMEA All systems/components are manufactured and assembled as specified by design Failure could, but will not necessarily, occur

Design FMEA Format Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure

O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions

Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C D E T R P N General Item Potential Failure

Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u

r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken

Every FMEA should have an assumptions document attached (electronically if possible) or the first line of the FMEA should detail the assumptions and ratings used for the FMEA. Product/part names and numbers must be detailed in the FMEA header All team members must be listed in the FMEA header Revision date, as appropriate, must be documented in the FMEA header S E V O C C D E T R P N

Function-What is the part supposed to do in view of customer requirements? Describe what the system or component is designed to do Include information regarding the environment in which the system operates define temperature, pressure, and humidity ranges List all functions Remember to consider unintended functions position/locate, support/reinforce, seal in/out, lubricate, or retain, latch secure Function Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S

e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D

e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C

D E T EXAMPLE: HVAC system must defog windows and heat or cool cabin to 70 degrees in all operating conditions (-40 degrees to 100 degrees) - within 3 to 5 minutes or - As specified in functional spec #_______; rev. date_________ R P N Potential Failure mode Definition: the manner in which a system, subsystem, or component could potentially fail to meet design intent Ask yourself- How could this design fail to meet each customer requirement? Remember to consider:

absolute failure partial failure intermittent failure over function degraded function unintended function Failure Mode Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v

C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t

e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C EXAMPLES:

HVAC system does not heat vehicle or defog windows HVAC system takes more than 5 minutes to heat vehicle HVAC system does not heat cabin to 70 degrees in below zero temperatures HVAC system cools cabin to 50 degrees HVAC system activates rear window defogger D E T R P N Consider Potential failure modes under: Operating Conditions hot and cold wet and dry dusty and dirty Usage Above average life cycle Harsh environment below average life cycle

Consider Potential failure modes under: Incorrect service operations Can the wrong part be substituted inadvertently? Can the part be serviced wrong? E.g. upside down, backwards, end to end Can the part be omitted? Is the part difficult to assemble? Describe or record in physical or technical terms, not as symptoms noticeable by the customer. Potential Effect(s) of Failure Definition: effects of the failure mode on the function as perceived by the customer Ask yourself- What would be the result of this failure? or If the failure occurs then what are the consequences Describe the effects in terms of what the customer might experience or notice State clearly if the function could impact safety or noncompliance to regulations Identify all potential customers. The customer may be an internal customer, a distributor as well as an end user Describe in terms of product performance

Effect(s) of Failure Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure

O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete

Date EXAMPLE: Cannot see out of front window Air conditioner makes cab too cold Does not get warm enough Takes too long to heat up Action Taken S E V O C C D E T R P N

Examples of Potential Effects Noise loss of fluid seizure of adjacent surfaces loss of function no/low output loss of system Intermittent operations rough surface unpleasant odor poor appearance potential safety hazard Customer dissatisfied Severity Definition: assessment of the seriousness of

the effect(s) of the potential failure mode on the next component, subsystem, or customer if it occurs Severity applies to effects For failure modes with multiple effects, rate each effect and select the highest rating as severity for failure mode Severity Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a

s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results

R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C EXAMPLE: Cannot see out of front window severity 9 Air conditioner makes cab too cold severity 5 Does not get warm enough severity 5 Takes too long to heat up severity 4

D E T R P N Classification Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l

a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c

Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C D E T

Classification should be used to define potential critical and significant characteristics Critical characteristics (9 or 10 in severity with 2 or more in occurrence-suggested) must have associated recommended actions Significant characteristics (4 thru 8 in severity with 4 or more in occurrence -suggested) should have associated recommended actions Classification should have defined criteria for application EXAMPLE: Cannot see out of front window severity 9 incorrect vent location occurrence 2 Air conditioner makes cab too cold severity 5 - Incorrect routing of vent hoses (too close to heat source) occurrence 6 R P N Potential Cause(s)/Mechanism(s) of failure Definition: an indication of a design weakness, the consequence of which is the failure mode Every conceivable failure cause or mechanism should be listed Each cause or mechanism should be listed

as concisely and completely as possible so efforts can be aimed at pertinent causes Cause(s) of Failure Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/

Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response &

Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C D E T EXAMPLE: Incorrect location of vents Incorrect routing of vent hoses (too close to heat source) Inadequate coolant capacity for application

R P N Potential Cause Tolerance build up insufficient material insufficient lubrication capacity Vibration Foreign Material

Interference Incorrect Material thickness specified exposed location temperature expansion inadequate diameter Inadequate maintenance instruction Over-stressing Over-load Imbalance Inadequate tolerance Mechanism Yield Fatigue Material instability Creep Wear Corrosion Occurrence Definition: likelihood that a specific cause/ mechanism will occur Be consistent when assigning occurrence Removing or controlling the cause/mechanism though a design change is only way to reduce the occurrence rating

Occurrence Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure

O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions

Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C D E T EXAMPLE: Incorrect location of vents occurrence 3 Incorrect routing of vent hoses (too close to heat source) occurrence 6 Inadequate coolant capacity for application occurrence 2 R

P N Current Design Controls Definition: activities which will assure the design adequacy for the failure cause/mechanism under consideration Confidence Current Design Controls will detect cause and subsequent failure mode prior to production, and/or will prevent the cause from occurring If there are more than one control, rate each and select the lowest for the detection rating Control must be allocated in the plan to be listed, otherwise its a recommended action 3 types of Controls 1. Prevention from occurring or reduction of rate 2. Detect cause mechanism and lead to corrective actions 3. Detect the failure mode, leading to corrective actions Current Design Controls Item Potential Failure Mode Function

Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current

Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E

V O C C D E T EXAMPLE: Engineering specifications (P) preventive control Historical data (P) preventive control Functional testing (D) detective control General vehicle durability (D) detective control R P N Examples of Controls Type 1 control Warnings which alert product user to impending failure Fail/safe features

Design procedures/guidelines/ specifications Type 2 and 3 controls Road test Design Review Environmental test fleet test lab test field test life cycle test load test Detection Item Potential

Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c

u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date

Action Taken S E V O C C Detection values should correspond with AIAG, SAE If detection values are based upon internally defined criteria, a reference must be included in FMEA to rating table with explanation for use Detection is the value assigned to each of the detective controls Detection values of 1 must eliminate the potential for failures due to design deficiency EXAMPLE: Engineering specifications no detection value Historical data no detection value Functional testing detection 3 General vehicle durability detection 5 D E T

R P N RPN (Risk Priority Number) Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s

Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N

Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Risk Priority Number is a multiplication of the severity, occurrence and detection ratings Lowest detection rating is used to determine RPN RPN threshold should not be used as the primary trigger definition of recommended actions EXAMPLE: Cannot see out of front window severity 9, incorrect location 2, Functional testing detection 3, RPN - 54 Action Taken S E V O C C

D E T for vent R P N Risk Priority Number(RPN) Severity x Occurrence x Detection RPN is used to prioritize concerns/actions The greater the value of the RPN the greater the concern RPN ranges from 1-1000 The team must make efforts to reduce higher RPNs through corrective action General guideline is over 100 = recommended action RPN Considerations Rating scale example:

Severity = 10 indicates that the effect is very serious and is worse than Severity = 1. Occurrence = 10 indicates that the likelihood of occurrence is very high and is worse than Occurrence = 1. Detection = 10 indicates that the failure is not likely to be detected before it reaches the end user and is worse than Detection = 1. 1 5 10 RPN Considerations (continued) RPN ratings are relative to a particular analysis. An RPN in one analysis is comparable to other RPNs in the same analysis but an RPN may NOT be comparable to RPNs in another analysis. 1 5

10 RPN Considerations (continued) Because similar RPN's can result in several different ways (and represent different types of risk), analysts often look at the ratings in other ways, such as: Occurrence/Severity Matrix (Severity and Occurrence). Individual ratings and various ranking tables. 1 5 10 Recommended Actions Definition: tasks recommended for the purpose of reducing any or all of the rankings Only design revision can bring about a reduction in the severity ranking Examples of Recommended actions Perform: Designed experiments reliability testing finite element analysis

Revise design Revise test plan Revise material specification Recommended Actions Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e v C l a s s

Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N

Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken All critical or significant characteristics must have recommended actions associated with them Recommended actions should be focused on design, and directed toward mitigating the cause of failure, or eliminating failure mode If recommended actions cannot mitigate or eliminate the potential for failure, recommended actions must force characteristics to be forwarded to process FMEA for process mitigation S E V O C

C the D E T R P N Responsibility & Target Completion Date Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of Failure S e

v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls Prevent Detect D e

t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V O C C

D E T All recommended actions must have a person assigned responsibility for completion of the action Responsibility should be a name, not a title Person listed as responsible for an action must also be listed as a team member There must be a completion date accompanying each recommended action R P N Action Results Item Potential Failure Mode Function Potential Effect(s) of

Failure S e v C l a s s Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) Of Failure O c c u r Current Design Controls

Prevent Detect D e t e c Action Results R P N Response & Recommended Target Actions Complete Date Action Taken S E V

Unless the failure mode has been eliminated, severity should not change Occurrence may or may not be lowered based upon the results of actions Detection may or may not be lowered based upon the results of actions If severity, occurrence or detection ratings are not improved, additional recommended actions must to be defined O C C D E T R P N Exercise Design FMEA Perform A DFMEA on a pressure cooker Pressure Cooker Safety Features

1. Safety valve relieves pressure before it reaches dangerous levels. 2. Thermostat opens circuit through heating coil when the temperature rises above 250 C. 3. Pressure gage is divided into green and red sections. "Danger" is indicated when the pointer is in the red section. Pressure Cooker FMEA Define Scope: 1. Resolution - The analysis will be restricted to the four major subsystems (electrical system, safety valve, thermostat, and pressure gage). 2. Focus - Safety Pressure cooker block diagram Process FMEA Definition: A documented analysis which begins with a teams thoughts concerning requirements that could go wrong and ending with defined actions which should be implemented to help prevent and/or detect problems and their

causes. A proactive tool to identify concerns with the sources of variation and then define and take corrective action. PFMEA as a tool To access risk or the likelihood of significant problem Trouble shoot problems Guide improvement aid in determining where to spend time and money Capture learning to retain and share knowledge and experience Customer Requirements Deign Specifications Key Product Characteristics Machine Process Capability Process Flow Diagram Process FMEA Process

Control Plan Operator Job Instructions Conforming Product Reduced Variation Customer Satisfaction Inputs for PMEA Process flow diagram Assembly instructions Design FMEA Current engineering drawings and specifications Data from similar processes

Scrap Rework Downtime Warranty Process Function Requirement Brief description of the manufacturing process or operation The PFMEA should follow the actual work process or sequence, same as the process flow diagram Begin with a verb Team Members for a PFMEA Process engineer

Manufacturing supervisor Operators Quality Safety Product engineer Customers Suppliers PFMEA Assumptions The design is valid All incoming product is to design specifications Failures can but will not necessarily occur Design failures are not covered in a PFMEA, they should have been part of the design FMEA Potentional Failure Mode How the process or product may fail to meet design or quality requirements Many process steps or operations will have multiple failure modes Think about what has gone wrong from past experience and what could go wrong Common Failure Modes

Assembly Missing parts Damaged Orientation Contamination Off location Torque Loose or over torque Missing fastener Cross threaded Machining Too narrow Too deep

Angle incorrect Finish not to specification Flash or not cleaned Potentional failure modes Sealant Missing Wrong material applied Insufficient or excessive material dry Drilling holes Missing Location Deep or shallow Over/under size

Concentricity angle Potential effects Think of what the customer will experience End customer Next user-consequences due to failure mode May have several effects but list them in same cell The worst case impact should be documented and rated in severity of effect Potential Effects End user Noise Leakage Odor Poor appearance

Endangers safety Loss of a primary function performance Next operation Cannot assemble Cannot tap or bore Cannot connect Cannot fasten Damages equipment Does not fit Does not match Endangers operator Severity Ranking How the effects of a potential failure mode may

impact the customer Only applies to the effect and is assigned with regard to any other rating Potential effects of failure Cannot assemble bolt(5) Endangers operator(10) Vibration (6) Severity 10 Take the highest effect ranking Classification Use this column to identify any requirement that may require additional process control KC - key characteristic F fit or function S - safety Your company may have a different symbol Potential Causes

Cause indicates all the things that may be responsible for a failure mode. Causes should items that can have action completed at the root cause level (controllable in the process) Every failure mode may have multiple causes which creates a new row on the FMEA Avoid using operator dependent statements i.e. operator error use the specific error such as operator incorrectly located part or operator cross threaded part Potential Causes Equipment Tool wear Inadequate pressure Worn locator Broken tool Gauging out of calibration

Inadequate fluid levels Operator Improper torque Selected wrong part Incorrect tooling Incorrect feed or speed rate Mishandling Assembled upside down Assembled backwards Occurrence Ranking How frequent the cause is likely to occur Use other data available Past assembly processes SPC Warranty Each cause should be ranked according to

the guideline Current Process Controls All controls should be listed, but ranking should occur on detection controls only List the controls chronologically Don not include controls that are outside of your plant Document both types of process controls Preventative- before the part is made Prevent the cause, use error proofing at the source Detection- after the part is made Detect the cause (mistake proof) Detect the failure mode by inspection Process Controls Preventative

SPC Inspection verification Work instructions Maintenance Error proof by design Method sheets Set up verification Operator training Detection Functional test Visual inspection Touch for quality Gauging Final test Detection Probability the defect will be detected by process controls before next or subsequent

process, or before the part or component leaves the manufacturing or assembly location Likely hood the defect will escape the manufacturing location Each control receives its own detection ranking, use the lowest rating for detection Risk Priority Number (RPN) RPN provides a method for a prioritizing process concerns High RPNs warrant corrective actions Despite of RPN, special consideration should be given when severity is high especially in regards to safety RPN as a measure of risk An RPN is like a medical diagnostic, predicting the health of the patient At times a persons temperature, blood pressure, or an EKG can indicate potential concerns which could have severe impacts or implications Recommended actions

Control Influence Cant control or influence at this time Recommended Action Definition: tasks recommended for the purpose of reducing any or all of the rankings Examples of Recommended actions Perform: Process instructions (P) Training (P) Cant assemble at next station (D) Visual Inspection (D) Torque Audit (D) PMEA as a Info Hub Customer

Design requirements Process Flow Diagram Current or Expected quality performance Process FMEA document Process Control Plan Operator Job Instructions Process Changes Implementation

and verification Recommended Corrective actions i.e. Error proofing Continuous Improvement Efforts And RPN reduction loop Communication of standard of work to operators FMEA process flow Process FMEA exercise Task: Produce and mail sets of contribution requests for Breast Cancer research Outcome: Professional looking requests to support research for a cure, 50 sets of information, contribution request, and return envelope Requirements No injury to operators or users Finished dimension fits into envelope All items present (info sheet, contribution form, and return envelope)

{KEY} All pages in proper order (info sheet, contribution form, return envelope) {KEY} No tattered edges No dog eared sheets Items put together in order (info sheet [folded to fit in legal envelope], contribution sheet, return envelope) {KEY} General overall neat and professional appearance Proper first class postage on envelopes Breast cancer seal on every envelope sealing the envelope on the back Mailing label, stamp and seal on placed squarely on envelope {KEY} Rubber band sets of 25 Process steps Fold information sheet to fit in legal envelope Collate so each group includes all components Stuff envelopes Affix address, postage, and seal Rubber bands sets of 25 Deliver to post office for mail today by 5 pm 10 steps to conduct a FMEA 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Review the design or process Brainstorm potential failure modes List potential failure effects Assign Severity ratings Assign Occurrence ratings Assign detection rating Calculate RPN Develop an action plan to address high RPNs Take action Reevaluate the RPN after the actions are completed Reasons FMEAs fail 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. One person is assigned to complete the FMEA. Not customizing the rating scales with company specific data, so they are meaningful to your company The design or process expert is not included in the FMEA or is allowed to dominate the FMEA team Members of the FMEA team are not trained in the use of FMEA, and become frustrated with the process FMEA team becomes bogged down with minute details of design or process, losing sight of the overall objective Reasons FMEAs fail 6. Rushing through identifying the failure modes to move onto the next step of the FMEA 7. Listing the same potential effect for every failure i.e. customer dissatisfied. 8. Stopping the FMEA process when the RPNs are calculated and not continuing with the recommended actions. 9. Not reevaluating the high RPNs after the corrective actions have been completed. Software Recommendations Numerous types and specialized formats Many have free trials

X-FMEA Reliasoft FMEA Pro-7 Access Data bases Excel formats Potpourri $10 0 $20 0 $30 0 $40 0 $50 0 Methods $10 0 $20

0 $30 0 $40 0 $50 0 Sample SOD $10 0 $20 0 $30 0 $40 0 $50 0 Rankings $10 0 $20

0 $30 0 $40 0 $50 0

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