Financial Crisis - River Dell Regional School District

Financial Crisis - River Dell Regional School District

Financial C r isis The Global Economic c ollapse of 2 0 08 Starting in the 1990s the business of government was business. Financial institutions made friends in

government through lobbying and political contributions regulators lacked the political will to scrutinize and hold accountable the institutions they were supposed to oversee. The financial industry spent $2.7 billion on lobbying from 1999 to 2008, while individuals and committees affiliated with it made more than $1 billion in campaign contributions. 0 New York Times January 25, 2011 The Business of Government Political Action

Committees (PAC) Lobbyists 0 Lobbying is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in the government, 0 Lobbying is done by privatesector individuals, corporations, or advocacy groups. 0 Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest who hires them. 0 PACs, control the most

"corporate" of money. 0 Controlled by companies, trade associations, unions, issue groups and even politicians these committees pool contributions from individuals and distribute them to candidates, political parties and other PACs. 0 PACs can also spend money independently on political activities, like advertising and other efforts to support or oppose candidates in an election

What Happened? 0 Cheap credit made it too easy for people to buy houses or make other investments based on pure speculation. 0 Cheap credit created more money in the system and people wanted to spend that money. 0 People wanted to buy the same thing, which increased demand and caused inflation. 0 Mortgages became easily

available, which increased demand for housing, which created an increase in home values. 0 These mortgages were bundled as securities products and sold as good investments 0 When people defaulted on the loans, the investments went bad and the bubble burst. Low Interest Rates Easy credit

Deregulation Securitization Mortgages are bundled as an investment These investments are sold to pension and state funds as AAA investments Housing Demands Prices rise higher than real value Anyone can get a mortgage The bubble bursts! Too many people default on their loans. Homes go into foreclosure. The investments are bad. Pension systems and

large investment companies lose millions. Then what? 0 A series of bank and insurance company failures triggered a financial crisis that effectively halted global credit markets and required unprecedented government intervention. 0 Fannie Mae (FNM) and Freddie Mac (FRE) were both taken over by the government. 0 Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy 0 Bank of America agreed to purchase Merrill Lynch (MER), 0 American International Group (AIG) was saved by an $85 billion capital injection by the federal government. 0 J P Morgan Chase (JPM) agreed to purchase the assets of Washington Mutual (WM) in what was the biggest bank failure in history. 0 By September 17, 2008, more public corporations had filed for bankruptcy in the U.S. than in all of 2007.

A Few Players 0 Timothy F. Geithner - was president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York during the crisis and is now the Treasury Secretary 0 Alan Greenspan head of the Federal Reserve during the crisis 0 Ben Bernanke Head of the Federal Reserve during the response 0 Henry Paulson - former CEO of Goldman Sachs, appointed Treasury Secretary in 2006 More on whos who Fannie Mae Freddie Mac

0 The Federal National 0 The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Association 0 The nations largest mortgage buyer 0 It was taken over by the federal government on Sept. 8, 2008 Mortgage Corporation 0 The nations secondlargest mortgage buyer 0 Publicly traded company that operates under a federal charter 0 It was taken over by the federal government on

Sept. 8, 2008 Federal Reserve 0 The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States. 0 Created in 1913 0 It operates independently, although its governors are appointed by the president and it is subject to Congressional oversight 0 Has the power to change interest rates and purchase vast amounts of financial assets 0 The Fed has exercised more influence over economic growth and the level of employment in recent decades than any other government entity 0 Since 12/2008 it has amassed more than $2 trillion in government debt and mortgage-backed securities

Treasury Secretary 0 The Treasury head is essentially the chief financial officer of the United States. 0 Advises the president on financial policy 0 Oversees the nation's accounts, including Social Security and Medicare 0 The official boss of such departmental bureaus as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, the Internal Revenue Service, and the U.S. Secret Service 0 Responsible for making sure the manufacture of coins and cash goes smoothly The Crisis of Credit Visualized

(Scroll down to the video in middle of page) Making Connections The Great Depression 0 Easy Credit 0 No regulation 0 Buying on speculation (stocks) 0 Inflated stock values 0 Bull market 0 Get rich quick 2008 Financial Crisis 0 Easy credit 0 Deregulation 0 Buying on speculation

(homes) 0 Inflated home values 0 Bull market 0 Get rich quick Comparing then and now Then (1933-1937) Now (1980-2010) 0 Glass-Steagall Banking 0 The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 1933 0 Investment Bankers Code Committee 1933 0 Securities Act 1933

Act 1999 0 Reformed Uniform Securities Act 1985 0 Commodity Futures Modernization Act 2000 History of Financial regulation : The Essay What should be the role of the government? Should the government regulate business and the economic sector? What is the governments

responsibility to the people? Introduction Hook Thesis Statement Body Paragraph: Great Depression Essay Structure #1 Causes Result/Outcome Body Paragraph: 2008 Recession Causes Result/Outcome Conclusion Summary of key ideas

Restatement of thesis Introduction Hook Thesis statement Body paragraph 1: Compare/Contrast Causes Essay Structure #2 Causes of the Depression Causes of the 2008 recession Body Paragraph 2: Compare/Contrast Outcomes Results/Outcome New Deal Results/Outcome 2010 Conclusion Restatement of Thesis

Summary of main ideas Essay Requirements 0 1- 2 pages 0 11 point font 0 Times New Roman 0 1.5 spacing References 0 NYTimes: http:// 26inquiry.html 0 http:// isis#Securitizationandthesubprimecrisis

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