Female Delinquency

Female Delinquency

Female Delinquency Similarities and differences between male and female delinquency: girls offenses less serious crimes committed by boys more varied half of all girls arrested are arrested for one of two offenses: Larceny theft (which for girls is usually shoplifting) Running away from home. 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Paths into the Juvenile Justice System

Delinquent Offenses Status Offenses Runaway Truancy Curfew Alcohol/Cigarettes 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Females and Status Offenses

60% of those referred for running away are girls 13% of girls are in correctional facilities for status offenses, compared to just 3% of all boys Just under one-fourth of girls are in juvenile court for a criminal offense 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Abuse and Running Away

For girls running away stems from abuse, especially sexual abuse Some estimate that 70% of girls who run away have been sexually abused As many as 2/3 of girls in detention have been sexually abused 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103

www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Most Serious Crime under the Uniform Crime Reports Part I/Index Offenses Index Crimes 1. Homicide 2. Forcible rape 3. Robbery 4. Aggravated assault 5. Burglary 6. Larceny 7. Motor vehicle theft

8. Arson 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Part II Offenses Include:

simple assault curfew offenses loitering embezzlement forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct driving under the influence drug offenses fraud gambling liquor offenses,

Prostitution public drunkenness stolen property vandalism weapons offenses 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Violent Crime Index 40 Boardman Place

San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Murder 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Robbery 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Aggravated Assault 40 Boardman Place

San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Burglary 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Property Crime Index 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Drug Abuse Arrests 40 Boardman Place

San Francisco, CA 94103 (OJJDP) www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 The daily patterns of juvenile violent crimes are similar for males and females (OJJDP) 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Extent of Female Delinquency Arrests of males outnumber female

arrests by more than a 2:1 ratio Common Males Offenses: Males more likely to be arrested for violent crimes and serious property crimes Possession of stolen property, vandalism, weapons offenses, other assaults, drugs. Common Female Offenses: Running away, prostitution, shoplifting 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Nature of Female Delinquency Shoplifting Young people (esp. girls) are especially sensitive to the consumer culture: they steal things they feel they need, or indeed may actually need but cannot afford. Women constitute a large proportion of those who shop, spend more time doing it as a pastime, and consequently are exposed to greater temptation. girls are more likely than boys to shoplift cosmetics and clothes; boys are more likely to steal electronic items (and also steal items they give to girls) girls spend more time shopping, are more carefully watched by store detectives, who report they are suspicious of young people in groups, particularly if they are not dressed well 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103

www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Status Offenses running away and curfew violation constitute a major portion of official female delinquency (about 25% of their arrests) and that they are far less prominent in male delinquency Girls are more likely than boys to not only be arrested for these two offenses, but referred to court The more further into the juvenile justice system we get, we find girls receiving harsher punishments for status offenses than their male counterparts. 23% of girls in residential placement are in for status offenses, compared to only 4% of the boys.

Parents apply a double standard, which is one explanation for the over-representation of girls charged with status offenses in court 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Importance of Sexual Abuse Childhood sexual abuse often leads girls into behaviors such as running away from home or other status offenses. Effects of abuse last longer for girls fear, anxiety, depression, anger and hostility, and inappropriate sexual behavior, running away from home, difficulties in school, truancy, and early marriage and others are among the long-term

effects Note the findings from surveys of females in correctional institutions girls problem behavior commonly relates to an whereas boys' law violating behavior reflects their involvement in a delinquent life style 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Sexual Abuse Childhood sexual abuse often leads girls into behaviors such as running away from home or other status offenses. Effects of abuse last longer for girls

fear, anxiety, depression, anger and hostility, and inappropriate sexual behavior, running away from home, difficulties in school, truancy, and early marriage and others are among the long-term effects Note the findings from surveys of females in correctional institutions girls problem behavior commonly relates to an abusive and traumatizing home, life, whereas boys' law violating behavior reflects their involvement in a delinquent life style 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Aggression and Gender

Research has uncovered two types of aggression: relational aggression and the effects of trauma. girls demonstrate higher levels of relational aggression behavior aimed at hurting someone without the use of physical aggression (yelling, insulting, and teasing) Trauma (resulting from physical and sexual abuse), which results in the lesson that might makes right As a result girls often engage in horizontal violence directed at other powerless girls (often with boys as the audience). 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Re-labeling Status Offenses Behaviors once categorized as status offenses and domestic violence cases have been re-labeled into violent offenses, potentially accounting for increases in girls arrest trends. Proportion of those in domestic violence cases who were women or girls went from 6% in 1988 to 16.5% in 1998 in California. Blacks women and girls were 3 times more likely to be arrested than whites Maryland study found that half of girls referred to juvenile court for person offenses were family centered and involved such activities as a girl hitting her mother and her mother subsequently pressing charges Same findings from a study of 1,000 cases in Calif.

Examine table 5-5 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Girls and Robbery Juvenile robbery is different than the stereotype would suggest It is the lowyield, criminal mischief category of offenses, rather than the stereotypical armed robbery like mugging or bank robbery Mostly involves stealing from fellow peers who have material possessions, rather than adults (rarely do they rob seniors) Often done for thrills and excitement and a desire to target kids

who are perceived as showoffs Rarely planned in advanced and done in groups of two or more. 40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013 Girls and Robbery Very gender-specific - boys more aggressive (more likely to use weapons), girls less so For both, getting money and status conferring goods, such as jewelry, are the primary motivations for committing the offense for both males and females

40 Boardman Place San Francisco, CA 94103 www.cjcj.org Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice 2013

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