Faking It? - NCRM

Faking It? - NCRM

What is the Imitation Game? Robert Evans and Harry Collins Centre for the Study of Knowledge, Expertise and Science (KES) Cardiff School of Social Sciences http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/socsi/expertise Overview Theory and Background Different Kinds of Expertise Turing Test Imitation Games in Practice Software and data Identify and Chance conditions Qualitative and Quantitative Results Comparative Research Cross-cultural and longitudinal research Understanding societies

http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/courseware/cs298/spring99/w9/slides/sld006.htm Three Kinds of Expertise Contributory expertise: enables those who have acquired it to contribute linguistically and practically to the community through the expertise is sustained. The most common usage of the word expert. Interactional Expertise: expertise in the language of a specialism in the absence of expertise in its practice. Like contributory expertise, it requires the tacit-knowledge acquired by immersion in a form-of-life (i.e. socialisation). It enables individuals to talk as if they had contributory expertise even though they lack practical or craft skills. No Expertise: not even the ability to talk intelligently about a given domain or topic Collins and Evans (2002) Turing Tests and Imitation Games In the Imitation Game, the judge must decide which participant shares their social

group. In the Turing Test, the judge must decide which is the computer and which is the human. Modern Imitation Game R1 once a week R2 not very often, when they need doing Male pretending to be female Female judge setting questions R2 is female because I expected How do women you the man tooften believe are pluck

your eyebrows? more regulated in their beauty regime than they actually are Female answering naturally Judge compares answers Judges verdict Judges confidence Judges reason Judges question Respondents Answers Automatically recorded data Software records

Questions and answers analysis of topics and assumptions used by judges (i.e. what is distinctive about own culture) Guesses and confidences what discriminates and what does not (i.e. what is shared with others and what is not) Judges reasons cultural norms and variation (i.e. what counts as a mistake and what as normal variation) Researcher generated data Researchers needed to record Problems with method and software (e.g. how to use, do participants understand role etc) Strategies used by judges and pretenders (e.g. what is hypothesis being tested by judge, how does pretender know the answer) Effort and determination (e.g. judges motives and fears)

Imitation Games with the Blind Identify Condition Judge is blind Target expertise is being blind Sighted participant has to pretend to be blind Prediction: Judge will succeed in identifying participants Chance Condition Judge is sighted Target expertise is

being sighted Blind participant has to pretend to be sighted Prediction: Blind person will succeed in pretending Sighted dialogs Judge R1 R2 Could you tell me roughly how old you are and whether you have been registered blind since birth I'm 50 and have been blind since I was 10 I'm 30 and I've been registered blind since I was

Do you have any residual sight and what mobility aids do you use? No I have no residual sight. I use a white stick and have a guide dog Twelve. I've got light and dark and color perception in one eye and I use a guide dog. Judges reasons Question One The second person is not black and white and you do not usually lose your sight over-night, so the fact they mention being registered suggest that they are blind. If the first one was blind they would normally say how they became blind if it was sudden. (level 2)

Question Two I have both white stick and dog but would never use both at same time. Therefore if I was responding I would say something like I use a guide dog predominantly but sometimes use a white stick -but if you are blind you would call it a cane normally. Also, number 2 was much less black and white. It's always grades of blindness. (level 4) Blind dialogs Judge R1 R2 So let me start with sport. Are you interested in tennis and do you ever watch it on the television? I watch Wimbledon a little bit on the television and occasionally the Australian Open in January

I like tennis but only watch big tournaments like Wimbledon So tell me what you think about the Hawk-Eye line judging system Not being a tennis professional it is not for me to say if it should or should not be used. It does not really alter viewing It adds an other element to the game which could make it more interesting Blind dialogs Judge R1 R2 How accurately would you say a human can judge the flight of a tennis-ball? I mean,

would you say they could tell the difference between touch the line and 1mm out 2mm out 1 cm out, 2 cm out, or what, and what would it depend on? I think often a tennis player is not in a position to judge accurately as they are not usually parallel with the line. I think that if you set up a test for a line judge with two balls one which landed on the line and one which landed 1mm away from the line, I don't think they could tell the difference. If you think how small 1mm is then it would be so hard for them to judge. it would depend on the speed the ball was travelling and the position of the judge relative to the line and

obviously the closer the ball is the line the harder it would be to make a judgement. So you would have to judge each call on an individual bases as there are a lot of factors. Judges reasons R1 is the blind person I think respondent 1 gives himself away when he discusses the human judgments on the flight of a tennis ball. I cannot believe a sighted person saying that Hawkeye does not alter the viewing. R2 is the blind person The Hawk-Eye questions reveal some quite specific

information that I dont think was published in audio media. Also, the story wasnt that important that Id expect it to be picked up by the audio news services provided to the blind. person 2 seems really unfamiliar with hawk-eye, given that they say they watch Wimbledon Interpreting Results The Identification Ratio measures the excess of correct identifications Comparisons across topics Identification Ratio Ratio Identification Chance Identify Conditions Conditions 1.00 1.00 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.60 0.40 0.40

0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.73 0.86 0.68 0.44 0.33 0.05 colour blind blind -0.20 -0.20 colour 0.00 pitch 0.13 -0.01 blind sexuality sexuality

-0.13 religion religion Topics ID Ratio Mean IR for ID condition approx 0.6 Net Don't Know Know Mean IR for Chance condition approx zero IG and Comparative Research Social Change and Social Difference Imitation Game as ethno-method

How to standardise data collection? How to reflect local variations? Participants discourse is always contemporary Judge as proxy ethnographer Participants as proxy stranger Participant errors like breaching experiments Imitation Game as secondary data Identification ratios by time, place and topic Qualitative data based on topics, reasons, errors Imitation Games on Gender Hypotheses Malestream culture: hegemonic masculinity implies asymmetrical results 1960s and all that: gender roles and

identities more flexible so knowledge widely shared Age as confounding factor Younger people have less interaction The 1960s are history? Research Design Research Methods module project Recruit students and heterosexual, cohabiting parents Phase One Students: Parents: 29 games (15 F, 14 M) 25 games (12 F, 13 M)

Phase Two Students: Parents: 70 games (40 F, 30 M) 70 games (50 F, 20 M) Results by gender Female Male Incorrect 11 12 Don't Know 15 10 Correct 29 22 Total 55

44 0.33 0.23 IR Female Male Incorrect 21 13 Don't Know 19 9 Correct 22 11 Total

62 33 0.02 -0.06 IR Phase One and Two, students Approximates identify condition for both groups, female judges appear more successful than male judges but not statistically significant (p = 0.37) Phase One and Two, students Approximates chance condition for both groups, no statistically significant difference between genders (p = 0.26) Results by age Young Old Incorrect

6 9 Don't Know 5 4 Correct 18 12 Total 29 25 0.41 0.12 IR Young

Old Incorrect 17 25 Don't Know 20 24 Correct 33 21 Total 70 70 0.23 -0.06

IR Phase One only Clear difference between groups; young judges more successful than older judges (p = 0.031) Phase Two only Clear difference between groups; young judges more successful than older judges (p = 0.007) Conclusions for gender Differences by gender No statistically significant differences in sample as a whole Some differences in topics chosen to represent and test cultures Clear differences by age

Older participants much better at pretending (i.e. have more interactional expertise)I Impossible to distinguish between 1960s hypothesis and the learning hypothesis without longitudinal study Conclusions Interactional expertise Imitation Game Useful concept for explaining social phenomena Combines qualitative and quantitative approaches Opportunities for comparative research within cultures, across cultures, over time

Want to know more http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/socsi/expertise References and reading Collins, Harry and Robert Evans (2002) The Third Wave of Science Studies: Studies of Expertise and Experience, Social Studies of Sciences, 32 (2): 235-96. Collins, Harry and Robert Evans (2007) Rethinking Expertise, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Collins, Harry, Robert Evans, Rodrigo Ribeiro and Martin Hall (2006), Experiments with Interactional Expertise, Studies In History and Philosophy of Science, Volume 37, No. 4 (Dec 2006), pp. 656-674. Evans, Robert and Harry Collins (forthcoming, 2010) Interactional Expertise and the Imitation Game in Michael Gorman (ed) Trading Zones and Interactional Expertise: Creating New Kinds of Collaboration, Chicago, IL: MIT Press

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