EXERCISE: The Effect On The Body Exercise When we exercise, our body must make a range of short term changes in order to keep up with the physical demands of the activity. It does this in a variety of ways across the: Muscles Lungs Heart Energy Systems.
Energy Production In order for muscles to function they require energy to do so. As a muscle contracts, ATP provides the energy for this. Energy Production Unfortunately there is only enough ATP in the muscles to last for 2 seconds. Because ATP is the only energy source used directly for this, our body has 3 other ways of
regenerating this chemical to create energy. ATP-CP System This system uses creatine phosphate (a highenergy molecule stored in muscles) to regenerate ADP back to ATP. CP ADP Creatine
ATP Anaerobic System This system uses glucose from the blood and glycogen stored in the muscles to regenerate ADP back to ATP. Glucose (from glycogen breakdown or delivered from oxygen ATP
Released to blood Chemical Reaction Lactic Acid O2 Aerobic System Aerobic respiration takes place in the
mitochondria. It requires oxygen and a series of chemical reactions to produce ATP. Mitochondria: Our cells power producers which convert energy into forms that can be used. Aerobic System This system uses glucose from the blood,
glycogen stored in the muscles as well as fatty and amino acids to generate ATP. Glucose (from glycogen breakdown or delivered from oxygen Fatty Acids Pyruvic Acid Amino
Acids Aerobic Respiration in Mitochondria CO2 O2 ATP
The Heart When exercising the main change that will occur with the heart is an increased cardiac output. This occurs for 2 main reasons. 1- The amount of oxygen needed by working muscles increases 2- The amount of waste products (CO2 and Lactic Acid) from the muscles increases The Lungs
When exercising the main change that will occur with the lungs is increased breathing rate and respiratory volume. This occurs for 2 main reasons. 1- The amount of oxygen needed by working muscles increases 2- The amount of waste products (CO2) from the muscles increases The Muscles The muscles have a number of things that
occur during exercise: Energy production (3 types) Depleted energy stores to do this (especially carbohydrates and some amount of fats) Increased lactic acid build up contributes to muscle fatigue and is partially responsible for muscle soreness from intense activity. The Muscles Heat Production Only about 40% of the energy released during
muscle contraction is converted to useful work. The rest is given off as heat to maintain constant temperature within the body. This is done through sweating and radiation of heat from the skins surface. Adaptations The Heart and Circulatory System Cardiac Muscle gets bigger increasing heart volumes Red Blood cells increase transporting more O2 Capillary beds increase creating better gaseous
exchange Resting Heart Rate Decreases Accumulation of Lactic Acid decreases due to more efficient circulatory system Adaptations The Lungs Diaphragm increases in strength Greater respiratory volumes Increase in diameter of capillaries on alveoli leads to increased gaseous exchange
Adaptations The Muscles More mitochondria Muscles, bones, ligaments become stronger Myoglobin numbers increase allowing more 02 stored in muscles Store more glycogen Enzymes for energy production become more concentrated and efficient
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