Scientific Method I. A. Process Observation 1. Hypothesis 2.
Hypothesis/Principle Deduction Prediction Experiment 4. 6. Possible cause Reflect past experience (educated guess) Multiple (consider alternative explanations) Testable Falsifiable Prediction
3. 5. Careful; Include as many parameters as possible Observations Induction Hypothesis Experimental group, Control group, Replication Results/Interpretation Scientific Theory Fig. 1.21 I. Scientific Method B. Field Observations vs. Controlled Experiments Field Observations (in situ)
1. Natural setting Uncontrolled variables Examples? Controlled Experiment (usually ex situ) 2. Fewer uncontrolled variables Test one or a few variable(s) at a time
Artificial setting (especially ex situ) Fig. 1.22 II. Geography A. World Ocean Made up of multiple ocean basins 1. Covers 71% of earths surface N. Hemisphere - 61% ocean
S. Hemisphere - 80% ocean Continuous environment, with few barriers to movement - unlike land Some barriers in the marine environment isolate organisms or groups of organisms from each other Four major ocean basins 2. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic Smaller marginal seas 3.
Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico Fig. 2.1 II. Geography Pacific Ocean 4. Largest (50%) and deepest basin - shrinking Many islands, seamounts, atolls Atlantic Ocean 5.
Second largest basin - expanding Best studied, especially North Atlantic Close to European seagoing nations Indian Ocean 6. Not well studied (e.g. coelacanth) Arctic Ocean 7.
Shallow Low salinity (river inputs) Ice cover (rotates with earth but slower) II. Geography Southern Ocean 8. Only ocean that forms continuous circle around earth
9. Produces worst weather on earth Extreme seasonal variability Marginal Seas a. Atlantic b. Pacific c.
Bering Sea, Sea of Cortez, Gulf of Alaska, Sea of Japan Indian d. North Sea, Baltic Sea, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Hudson Bay Arabian Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf Southern Ross Sea, Weddell Sea Fig. 2.2 III.
Geology A. Internal Structure of Earth Core 1. Composed mostly of iron and iron alloys Estimated temperature of > 4000 oC Solid inner core, liquid outer core - magnetic field Mantle 2.
Solid, very hot, flows but slowly Crust - Why does crust float on mantle? 3. Solid, thin Fig. 2.3 III. Geology B. Plate Tectonics Continental Drift 1.
Apparent fit of continents (1620 - Sir Francis Bacon) Similar geological formations on opposite sides of ocean basins Related species and similar fossils on opposite sides of ocean basins 1912 - Alfred Wegener proposed theory of continental drift but lacked mechanism Concrete evidence for continental drift not obtained until 1960s Fig. III. Geology
B. Plate Tectonics Mid-Ocean Ridge System 2. Discovered from sea floor mapping with SONAR during and after World War II Largest geological feature on Earth Ridges displaced in some areas by transform faults Trenches 3.
Conspicuous sea floor features Especially common in the Pacific Ocean http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/global_topo_large.g
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