Energy for exercise

Energy for exercise

Energy for exercise To understand the role of ATP and its resynthesis during exercise of different intensities. To understand and be able to explain the role of the 3 energy systems. To be able to analyse the energy continuum using different sporting examples. The capacity to perform work. It comes in 3 forms: C_______

P________ K______ What is each form and how is it stored/ used? ATP for short The food we eat is stored as amino acids, triglycerides and glycogen ready to be used as fuel. When these fuels are metabolised they are converted into a compound called ATP. ATP is the universal energy currency of the body. When ATP is broken down, it provides energy for cellular processes such as digestion, nerve

transmission and muscular contraction. ATPase (enzyme) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ATP must then be resynthesised to continue to provide energy. An endothermic reaction takes place to rebuild the high-energy bond between ADP + P. This is done in one of three way the energy systems. Anaerobic without the presence of oxygen Mole a unit of substance quantity Coupled reaction where the products of one reaction

are used in another reaction Creatine kinase an enzyme which catalyses the breakdown of PC Sarcoplasm the cytoplasm or fluid within the muscle cell which holds stores of PC, glycogen and myoglobin Phosphocreatine a high energy compound stored in the muscle and broken down for ATP resynthesis The ATP-PC system works during very high-intensity activity after 2 seconds on intense activity depletes the ATP stores. ATP levels fall and levels of ADP + P rise. This triggers the release of _______________ , and enzyme which catalyses the breakdown of ______________ . This is made up of a high-energy phosphate bond and is stored in the muscle cells. It has a simple structure and is broken down __________ in the __________ . The

high energy bond between creatine and phosphate is broken, releasing energy for ATP resytnthesis. For every one ______ of PC broken down, one ______ of ATP can be resythesised. This forms a ____________________ whereby the breakdown of PC releases a free phosphate and energy which can then be used to resynthesise ATP. This process happens very quickly as both compounds are simple structures providing energy for high-intensity activities. However, PC stores are small and quickly exhaust after approximately 8 seconds. 1. What type of training do you think would boost the storage capacity for ATP and PC in the muscles? 2. How can a performer manipulate their diet to increase stores of PC?

3. What would the advantages of boosting PC stores in the muscle be? 4. What are the advantages of the ATP-PC system? 5. What are the disadvantages of the ATP-PC system? Link the ATP-PC system to as many sporting examples as possible that have the correct intensity and duration. Create a timeline of events which show how the glycolytic system works using the cards in your pack 1. What type of training do you think would benefit

the glycolytic system? 2. How supplements could a performer use to help this system? 3. What are the advantages of the glycolytic system? 4. What are the disadvantages of the glycolytic system? 5. What sports would the glycolytic system be used for? The aerobic system works at low to moderate intensity as there is sufficient oxygen to enable continued energy production. The aerobic system utilises around 95% of the potential energy in glucose.

There are 3 stages: 1. Aerobic glycolysis 2. Krebs cycle 3. Electron transport chain (ETC) Aerobic glycolysis Covert glucose into pyruvic acid in the sarcoplasm by PFK As oxygen is now available, pyruvic acid is no longer converted into lactic acid Pyruvic acid now goes through a

link reaction catalysed by coenzyme A This releases enough energy to resythesise 2 ATP moles. Converting glycogen to glucose using GPP maintains this process for extended periods of time This produces acetyl CoA this allows access to the mitochondria in the muscle cell

Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA (produced in aerobic glycoysis) combines with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid. This is then oxidised through a cycle of reactions. Known as the Krebs cycle carbon dioxide, hydrogen an enough energy resynthesise 2 moles of ATP. This process occurs in the intracellular fluid in the mitochondria. Covert glucose into pyruvic acid in the sarcoplasm by PFK This releases enough energy to

resythesise 2 ATP moles. As oxygen is now available, pyruvic acid is no longer converted into lactic acid Pyruvic acid now goes through a link reaction catalysed by coenzyme A Converting glycogen to glucose using GPP maintains this process for extended periods of time This produces acetyl CoA this allows access to the

mitochondria in the muscle cell Carbon dioxide, hydrogen and energy are oxidised to resynthesise 2 moles of ATP. Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid. Electron Transport Chain Hydrogen atoms are carried through the electron transport chain along the inner folds of the mitochondria by NAD and FAD hydrogen carriers.

This splits up the hydrogen atoms into H+ (ions) and H(electrons). Hydrogen ions are oxidised and removed at H20. Pairs of hydrogen electrons carried by NAD (NADH2) release enough energy to resythesise 30 moles of ATP. Those carried by FAD (FADH2) release enough energy to resynthsise 4 moles of ATP. Then overall yield of the ETC is 34 moles of ATP. Covert glucose into pyruvic acid in the sarcoplasm by PFK This releases enough energy to resythesise 2 ATP moles.

As oxygen is now available, pyruvic acid is no longer converted into lactic acid Pyruvic acid now goes through a link reaction catalysed by coenzyme A Converting glycogen to glucose using GPP maintains this process for extended periods of time This produces acetyl CoA this allows access to the mitochondria in the muscle cell

Carbon dioxide, hydrogen and energy are oxidised to resynthesise 2 moles of ATP. Hydrogen atoms carried through ETC by NAD and FAD. Hydrogen atoms are split into ions (+) and electrons (-) Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid.

Hydrogen ions are oxidised and turn to water. Pairs of hydrogen electrons release enough energy to yield 34 moles of ATP in total. Aerobic system When all 3 stages of the aerobic system are combined, one mole of glucose yields 38 moles of ATP.

The higher the performers aerobic capacity, the faster oxygen will arrive in supply and the switch can be made to aerobic energy production. Free Fatty Acids Glycogen stores will fuel the aerobic system for a significant period of time as they are large. Long-distance performers will want to reserve glycogen stores. WHY? Triglycerides (fats) can also be metabolised aerobically as free fatty acids. This conserves glycogen and glucose.

How does this happen? Lipase is released the enzyme which breaks down fats. This converts triglycerides into FFAs and glycerol. FFAs are converted into acetyl CoA and follow the same path through the Krebs cycle and ETC as pyruvic acid. FFAs produce more acetyl CoA and a higher energy yield however FFAs require around 15% more oxygen to metabolise and therefore the intensity must remain low. 1. What type of training should be used to improve

the efficiency of the aerobic system? 2. What 5 things does this type of training improve? 3. What can a performer do to their diet to improve glycogen stores and the use of triglycerides? 4. What are the advantages of the aerobic system? 5. What are the disadvantages of the aerobic system? Energy continuum Complete the missing words paragraph on the use of the energy continuum. Duration of maximal exercises Seconds Minutes

10 30 60 2 4 10 30

60 120 % anaerobic 90 80 70 50

35 15 5 2 1 % aerobic 10

20 30 50 65 85 95 98

99 Draw a graph that represents this information. You will need to draw 2 lines on one graph. Intermittent exercise Give some examples of where intermittent exercise is used in sport. What do you think is meant by the term threshold? When would a netball player reach the ATP-PC/ Glycolytic threshold and the glycolytic/aerobic threshold?

Recovery periods & fitness level Summarise from reading pages 12-13 how recovery periods and fitness levels are affected by or have an effect on the energy system used.

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