Emergence of the modern united states T H E P R O G R E S S I V E E R A A N E M E R G I N G W O R L D P O W E R W O R L D WA R I A N D B E Y O N D The Progressive Era 1890-1920 The Drive for Reform 1B, 7B, 7C KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE Progressive Era Muckraker Lincoln Steffens Jacob Riis Social Gospel
Settlement House Jane Addams Direct Primary Initiative Referendum Recall Origins of Progressivism Progressivism Reform Honest, efficient government Leaders emerged from growing middle class
Dissatisfied industrial workers Few wealthy Americans Common Beliefs Believed industrialization and urbanization had created social and political problems Wanted laws to address the issues of the poor Logic and reason to make society work in a more efficient way Similar to Populism Rid of government corruption Make government more responsive to peoples needs
Differed from Populism Mostly middle class Target a Variety of Problems Political and Government Reform Womens right to vote Honest government Political machines Social Welfare Crowded cities Need paved streets Water sanitation
Decent housing Target a Variety of Problems, Contd Big Business busts the trusts Create more economic opportunities for small business Sherman Antitrust Act is inadequate and ineffective Labor Conditions Reduce the growing gap between the rich and poor Attack the harsh conditions Child labor laws Muckrakers Reveal the Need for
Reform Journalists and writers Uncovered a wide range of ills Given name by Teddy Roosevelt A muckrake is a tool used to clean manure and hay out of animals stables Journalists Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities Collection of articles on political corruption\ Jacob Riis
Photographer How the Other Half Lives Shot the crowded, unsafe, rat-infested tenement buildings Ida Tarbell The History of Standard Oil Report of John Rockefellers ruthless methods to ruin his competitors Novelists Frank Norris The Octopus Dramatized Southern Pacific Railroads stronghold on California farmers Upton Sinclair
The Jungle Wrote about the despairs of Chicago immigrants working in meat packing industry aimed for their hearts but hit them in their stomachs Progressives Reform Society The Social Gospel Walter Rauschenbusch Christianity is the basis of social reform
Followed Bibles teachings of charity and justice People can make society the Kingdom of God Pushed an end to child labor, shorter work week, limit corporations and trusts Settlement Houses Community center that provided social services to the urban poor Classes in child care, English, nursery schools, theater, art, etc Put in place to help and assimilate Jane Addams: The Hull House in Chicago, leading figure
Protecting Children Florence Kelley Lawyer, got Illinois to ban child labor Helped for National Child Labor Committee Lobbied the federal government to create the U.S. Childrens Bureau in 1912 Keating-Owens Act, 1916 Banned child labor Later ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court 1938 before child labor is banned for good Improving Education States passed laws that required children to
attend school until a certain age Debate Work skills vs literature and music Girls vs boys John Dewey Educator New subjects: history/geography as well as work skills Helping Industrial Workers Working conditions made industrial work unsafe Triangle Shirtwaist
Factory Fire in 1911 No chance to escape, exits were locked Killed 146 workers Result: New York passed laws to make workplaces safer Other cities and states followed suit Reforming Government
Election Rules Direct Primary Initiative Gave citizens the power to put a proposed new law directly on the ballot Referendum
An election where citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections Wisconsin is the first to pilot this, Gov. Robert La Follete Gave citizens the power to approve or reject laws Recall Gave citizens the power to remove public servants from office All of these give the PEOPLE more political power Women Make Progress 2C, 4A, 4B
KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE Florence Kelley NCL Temperance Movement Margaret Sanger Ida B. Wells Suffrage Carrie Chapman Catt NAWSA Alice Paul Nineteenth Amendment Working Women Face Hardships Difficult jobs, long hours, dangerous conditions Many had to hand over wages to the men in
the family Easily cheated or bullied by employers No right to vote Little influence on politicians Reformers Champion Working Womens Rights Key goal: limit working hours Oregon law capped at 10 hours Muller vs Oregon Argument: long working hours harm women & families Decision: women could be placed in a class by themselves
Laws can limit their working hours and not for men At the time, seen as a victory. It was later used against women when they demanded things such as equal pay. Florence Kelley: lawyer that worked for child labor Believed women were hurt by the unfair prices of goods needed for women to run their homes Helped form National Consumers League (NCL) Labels for goods produced in fair, safe, healthy conditions Womens Trade Union League (WTUL) Worked for minimum wage and 8 hour work day
Women Work for Change in Family Life Key goal: improve family life Temperance Movement: practice of never drinking alcohol Birth Control Lead by WCTU
Argument: men spent earnings on liquor, not family Result: lead to the passage of the 18 th amendment (prohibition) Nurse Margaret Sanger Mothers should have fewer children First birth control clinic National Association of Colored Women (NACW) Ida B. Wells Teacher helped set up day-care centers to educate black children Women Fight for the Right to Vote Suffrage: the right to vote Carrie Chapman Catt
Urged women to join NAWSA Action on 2 fronts Congress pass a constitutional amendment Referendum process to pass state suffrage laws Helped in New York, Michigan, Oklahoma Alice Paul Formed National Womens Party (NWP) Used public marches to push womens right to vote The 19th Amendment 1917, U.S. enters WWI
Kelley and Catt led the NAWSA to support the war effort Convinced legislators to support a womens suffrage amendment 1919: Congress passes the 19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote Women first vote in the 1920 election The Struggle Against Discrimination 4ABC KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE Americanization Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois Niagara Movement NAACP Urban League Anti-Defamation League
Mutualistas Progressivism Presents Contradictions Progressive Era not so progressive for non- whites and immigrant Americans Most Progressives were white, Anglo-Saxon Protestant Indifferent and even hostile to minorities Social Reform or Social Control? Americanization=assimilation
Settlement houses, etc Taught English and tried to change immigrants way of life How to dress and eat American Get rid of food and culture of their homelands Believed assimilating would make immigrants more loyal Racism Limits the Goals of Progressivism Most Progressives were prejudiced against those who were
Nonwhite Non Protestant Non Middle Class African Americans Demand Reform Booker T. Washington gradual progress W.E.B. DuBois immediate equality Niagara Movement
Black men across the south were being denied right to vote Denounced gradual progress Wanted more education than work skills Never got very strong NAACP 1909 Included black and white Progressives Use the courts to challenge unfair laws Urban League African Americans migrating from rural to urban areas
Focused on poorer workers Reducing Prejudice and Protecting Rights Anti-Defamation League Jewish group formed in response to anti-Semitism Goal: defend Jews and others against verbal and physical attacks, false statements, and justice and fair treatment Mexican Americans Mutualistas Groups that made loans and provided legal assistance Had insurance programs to help if too sick to work
Native Americans Urged to preserve their cultures and avoid being dependent on government Asian Americans Fought laws that prevented them from being citizens Shot down by the Supreme Court Roosevelts Square Deal 1B, 1C, 2B KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE Theodore Roosevelt Square Deal Hepburn Act Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act John Muir Gifford Pinchot National Reclamation Act New Nationalism Progressive Party Roosevelt Shapes the Modern Presidency First Progressive President after Presidents considered weak in the Gilded Age Spanish-American War Hero Fought with the Rough Riders Calvary William McKinleys Vice-President
Assassinated allowing T. Roosevelt to become President in 1901 Square Deal Used his office and power to convince Americans the need for reform Goals: keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor What his goal WAS NOT: everyone gets rich, government take care of the lazy Trust Busting and Regulating Industry Strike involvement 1902, coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike
He was sympathetic toward workers BUT Coal is needed to keep factories running and homes warm What did he do? Better pay and shorter work day
First: tried to reason with coal miners=FAIL Second: threatened to send in federal troops to take control of mines and run them with federal employees Result: Mine owners gave small pay raise and 9 hour work day Why does it matter? For the first time, the federal government had stepped in to help workers in a labor dispute Roosevelt Takes on the Railroads Issue: the cost of shipping freight Companies can charge what they want 1887: Congress created the ICC to oversee rail charges
1900: Supreme Court had stripped most of ICC power 1906: Hepburn Act Gave the ICC strong enforcement power Gave government the authority to set and limit shipping costs Roosevelt Enforces the Sherman Antitrust Act Got a reputation as trust buster Saw a difference in good trust and bad trusts
Big business can be more efficient Supported as long as they did business FAIRLY Regulating the Food and Drug Industries Upton Sinclairs The Jungle Led Congress to
pass the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act (FDA) The Government Manages the Environment Should National Forests be Conserved or Preserved? T. Roosevelt loved nature
Admired John Muirefforts led to Yellow Stone National Park He did not believe all forest land should be preserved Some should be conserved and use their natural resources Gifford Pinchot Led the Division of Foresty Forests be preserved for public use Trees have time to mature into good labor to be used for housing, etc. Water Policy Highly controversial natural resource
Who owned water rights and how water was to be shared National Reclamation Act of 1902 Gave the Federal government the power to decide Roosevelt and Taft Differ Roosevelt helped Taft get elected in 1908 Left his policies to Taft to continue Taft took own course
Payne-Aldrich Act: didnt lower tariffs as much as Roosevelt wanted Mann-Elkins Act: government control of telephone and telegraph rates Proposed income tax Busted Standard Oil Trust Relaxed the Sherman Antitrust Act Fired Gifford Pinchot New Nationalism Roosevelt was IRRATE with Taft for breaking away from his policies Traveled the country speaking about New
Nationalism Program to restore the governments trust-busting ability Declared himself strong as a bull moose Vowed to tackle trusts in a third presidential term 1912 election The Taft-Roosevelt split the Republican Party Roosevelt became the Progressive Party The split in the party allowed the Democrats, Woodrow
Wilson, to win the election Wilsons New Freedom 6ABC KEY TERMS AND PEOPLE Woodrow Wilson New Freedom Sixteenth Amendment Federal Reserve Act Federal Trade Commission Clayton Antitrust Act Wilson Wins the Election of 1912 The split in the Republican Party allowed Democrat Wilson to win the election Called his plan New Freedom
Resembled Roosevelts New Nationalism Strict government control of corporations Wilson Regulates the Economy Congress lowers tariffs and Raises Taxes Passed Underwood Tariff 1913 Sixteenth Amendment
Prevented big manufacturers from unfairly charging high prices Graduated income tax Wealthy people pay a higher percentage of their income than poor people Rationale: money the government lost from lowering tariffs would be made up from the income tax collected Federal Reserve, 1913 Placed national banks under the control of a central board
Set up regional banks to hold the reserve funds from commercial banks Still in place today Protects the American economy from having too much money in the hands of one person, bank, or region. Sets interest rates
Wilson Strengthens Antitrust Regulation Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Monitor business practices, false advertising, and dishonest labeling Clayton Antitrust Act Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act Spelled out specific activities businesses could not do Workers Rights Protected The Clayton Antitrust Act also protected labor unions from being attacked as trusts
Remember the Sherman Antitrust Act did the opposite Working Mans Compensation Act Gave wages to temporarily disabled civil service employees Progressivisms Legacy Expanding Voters Influence Direct Primary Initiative Referendum Recall More protection of Americans private lives at the same time gaining more control Left the idea the government can take action to
help people fix problems Also a criticism of Progressivism People will now want to rely on the government to fix ALL their problems
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