Embryology of Cardiovascular System

Embryology of Cardiovascular System

Development of the Central Nervous System Biomedic Dept. Medical School, Unisba Origin of Nervous System CNS-The brain and spinal cord

ectoderm neural epithelium. Proliferation neural plate neural groove neura fold neural tube. neural Proliferation plate neural groove

neural fold neural tube. Neural Tube CNS (Brain&spinal cord)

Neural Crest PNS & ANS(Cranial, spinal, autonomic ganglia) The rest is neural crest . Neuralation of the neural

Formation plate and neural tube(22-23 days)region of the fourth to

sixth pairs of somite Two third craniallyfuture brain One third caudally spinal cord Fusion of the neural folds neural canalrostral neuropore (cranial)&caudal

neuropore( 1. Ektoderm 2. Neural tube bagian dorsal 3. Neural tube 4. Neural tube bagian ventral

5. Notochord Gen-gen yang berperan dalam perkembangan neural tube A Sensory Neuron B Viscero sensory neuron/motoric

C Motoric neuron Gen PAX3/7 berperan dalam perkembangan Alar plate Gen PAX 6 berperan dalam perkembangan basal plate Defisit dari gen ini menyebabkan Syndrome

de Waardenburg Development of The Spinal Cord Development of The Spinal Cord

3 concentric zones: Ependymal/ ventricularlayer (internal) nucleated , mitotic cells Mantle/intermediate layer (middle) the cell bodies of neuron and neuroglial cells marginal layer (outer) fibrous mass, processes of nerve cells. -

Development of the Spinal Ganglia Neural crest cellsSpinal ganglia process(dendrit)pass the spinal n. to sensory Peripheral endings Central processdorsal roots of spinal nerve

Myelination of nerve fiber oligodendrocyte Development of spinal meningens Positional changes of the spinal cord: The vertebral column and duramater grow more rapidly than the spinal cordpositional spinal cord does not persist

New born(terminate L2/L3)& Adult (inferior L1) Congenital anomalies of spinal cord

Development of The Brain 1 Telencephalon 2 Diencephalon 3 Mesencephalon 4 Cerebellum 5 pons 4+5 Metencephalon

6 Myelencephalon(medulla oblongata) 7 Spinal cord I Prosencephalon II Mesencephalon III Rhombencephalon A Cerebral trunk

Development of brain Fusion of the neural folds in the cranial region & closure of the rostral neuropore form 3 primary brain vesicles Primitive brain straight three point of expansion:Forebrain,Midbrain&Hindbrain fore brain (prosencephalon) mid brain (mesencephalon) hind brain (rhombencephalon).

Fourth week :embryonic brain grows rapidly and bends ventrally with the head fold Flexure : cephalic/mid brain, cervical, pontine MYELENCEPHALON

-Most caudal part called medulla oblongata - neuroblast(alar plate) marginal zone gracili nuclei medially& cuneate nuclei laterally -Continued into spinal cord. -Vascular mesenchymechoiroid plexure . - Neuroblast(basal plate)medial tp lateral: general somatic efferent(hypoglosal

nerve), special visceral efferent(innv. Muscle from pharyngeal arches), general visceral afferent(vagus & glossopharyngeal nerve) - Neuroblast(alar plate)1. general visceral afferent(impulses from the viscera) 2. special visceral afferent(taste fibers)3.general somatic aff. (Impulses from the surface of the head) 4. special somatic aff(impulses from the ear) METENCEPHALON -From isthmus to pontine flexure.

-Dorsal: cerebellum -Ventral: pons MESENCEPHALON -Least modified -Overshadowed by fore and hind brains

DIENCEPHALON. -Epithalamus,thalamus,hypothalamus. -Evagination epiphysis -The wall optic chiasm -Infundibulum hypophysis. TELENCEPHALON -Paired cerebral hemisphere -Three functions corpus striatum,

rhinencephalon and pallium. Congenital anomalies of brain Anencephaly (Meroencephaly) Microcephaly Hydrocephalus

Cranium Development of cranium Cranium develops from mesenchyme around the developing brain. The cranium consists of:Neurocranium

Viscerocranium Congenital anomalies of cranium Cranium bifidum Acrania

Holo-acrania Vertebrae Development of vertebral Mesenchymal cells are found in three main areas: around the notocord, surrounding the neural tube, and in the

body wall Cartilaginous Stage Bony stage Notocord expands to form the gelatinous center of the intervertebral disc -- the nucleus pulposus

Congenital anomalies of vertebrae Rachischisis Spina Bifida Alhamdulillah

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