Elements Of Drama/Theatre The Elements of Drama Elements of Drama: The elements of drama, by which dramatic works can be analyzed and evaluated, can be categorized into three major areas: literary elements, technical elements, and performance elements. literary elements technical elements performance elements
Literary Elements Plot: the series of events that take place in a play. There are 6 stages in a plot structure: 1. Exposition is the who, when, where and what part of the play. 2. Initial incident- the event that gets the story going
3. Rising action: a series of events following the initial incident and leading up to the dramatic climax. 4. Climax: the turning point or high point of a story, when events can go either way 5. Falling action: the series of events following the climax.
6. Denouement or Conclusion : another term for the ending-it is the French word for unraveling). Literary Elements Character: a person portrayed in a drama, novel, or other artistic piece. Preliminary event whatever takes place BEFORE the action of the play that is directly related to the play Story organization: beginning, middle, end Conflict: the internal or external struggle between opposing
forces, ideas, or interests that creates dramatic tension. Suspense: a feeling of uncertainty as to the outcome, used to build interest and excitement on the part of the audience. Literary Elements Theme: the basic idea of a play; the idea, point of view, or perception that binds together a work of art. Language: in drama, the particular manner of verbal expression, the diction or style of writing, or the speech or phrasing
that suggests a class or profession or type of character. Style: the shaping of dramatic material, settings, or Literary Elements Monologue Speech made by one character. a long speech made by one actor; a monologue may be delivered alone or in the presence of others. Soliloquy Speech made by single character that provides audience a glimpse of their inner thoughts
Asides Comments made directly to the audience Soliloquies A long speech delivered by a character who is alone onstage. Function of Soliloquies A soliloquy typically reveals the
private thoughts and emotions of the character. Technical Elements Scenery (set): the theatrical equipment, such as curtains, flats, backdrops, or platforms, used in a dramatic production to communicate environment Costumes: clothing and accessories worn by actors to portray character and period. Props:
short for properties; any article, except costume or scenery, used as part of a dramatic production; any moveable object that appears on stage during a performance, from a telephone to a train. Technical Elements Lights: the placement, intensity, and color of lights to Help communicate environment, mood, or feeling Sound: the effects an audience hears during performance to communicate character, context, or environment Makeup: costumes, wigs, and body
paint used to transform an actor into a character. Performance Elements Acting use of face, body, and voice to portray character Character motivation: the reason or reasons for a characters behavior; an incentive or inducement for further action for a character Character analysis: in responding to dramatic art, the process of examining how the elements of dramaliterary, technical, and performanceare used Empathy: the capacity to relate to the feelings of another.
Performance Elements Speaking: the mode of expression or delivery of lines Breath control: proper use of the lungs and diaphragm muscle for maximum capacity and efficiency of breath for speaking Vocal expression: how an actor uses his or her voice to convey character Inflection: change in pitch or loudness of the voice. Projection: how well the voice carries to the audience Speaking style: the mode of expression or delivery of lines Diction: selection and pronunciation of words; clarity of speech. Performance Elements
Nonverbal expression: Gestures any movement of the actors head, shoulder, arm, hand, leg, or foot to convey meaning Body alignment physiologically correct posture and use of the body to ensure the maximum capacity and efficiency of breathing and movement Facial expression physical and vocal aspects used by an actor to convey mood, feeling, or personality Character blocking the path formed by the actors movement on stage, usually determined by the director with assistance from the actor and often written down in a script using commonly accepted theatrical symbols Movement stage blocking or the movements of the actors onstage during performance; also refers to the action of the play as it moves from event to
event. Staging Visual details of the play Blocking Movement of actors, position of items on the set
Costume Set pieces Actions Sounds Stage Directions/Terms Upstage, Downstage, Center Stage
Offstage vs. Backstage Stage Left/Stage Right vs. House Left/House Right Proscenium the area of a theatre surrounding the stage opening. A proscenium arch is the arch over this area. In the Round (also referred as central staging) is any theatre space in which the audience surrounds the stage area Raked Stage
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