Elements, Compounds, and Organic Compounds

Elements, Compounds, and Organic Compounds

Elements, Compounds, and Organic Compounds Matter Everything in the universe is made up of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. - All matter is made up of elements.

Atom An atom is the smallest unit or piece of an element that still has all the properties of that element. Soan atom of gold is the smallest amount of gold you can get.

Element An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler parts by ordinary means. Each element is made up of one type of atom. Examples:

Gold, Iron, Oxygen, Lead, Copper, Nickel, Sodium Elements Basically this means that everything is made up of elements, or different types of atoms. If you took a piece of gold and kept cutting it in half, eventually you would get to the point where it cannot be made

any smaller. You would get down to 1 atom of the element gold There are over a hundred different elements, but only 94 are found naturallywe made the rest! Elements The

chemical symbol for an element is the one or two letter abbreviation for the element. The chemical symbol always starts with a capital letter. If an element has a 2-letter symbol, then the first letter is capitalized and the second letter is lower-case. It does not always match up with the letters in the name, though usually they do. Examples:

S for Sulfur and Na for sodium comes from the Latin name for it: natrium Compounds A compound is a combination of two or more elements. You can determine how many elements are in

a compound by counting the number of Capital Letters. Example: CO2 has 2 different elements in it. Molecules Molecules are formed when 2 or more atoms are joined together chemically. If its 2 or more atoms of the same element, its a molecule of that element:

O2 contains 2 atoms of oxygen If two or more different elements are joined, it is a compound and a molecule. All

Ex. NaCl, C6H12O6 compounds are molecules, but not all molecules are compounds. SUMMARY Atom - the smallest particle of matter and makes up elements Element - matter consisting of only one type of atom

Molecule - one or more atoms chemically combined. 1 type of atom = element 2 or more types of atoms = compound Compound - two or more different elements chemically combined Lets Review What is an element? An element is any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

The smallest unit of an element is an atom. What is a compound? A compound is any chemical that is made of two or more different elements What are organic compounds? Organic compounds are always composed

of carbon along with hydrogen http://www.chemistryland.com/ElementarySchool/BuildingBlocks/BuildingOrganic.htm Organic compounds are compounds that usually come from organisms. They always have carbon but may contain other elements like sulfur, phosphorus,oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. C,H,O,N,P,S

Examples: Alcohol, Sugar, Fat, Protein. Organic Compounds Organic Compounds contain carbon, hydrogen, and various other elements. C6H12O6 is an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

CH4 is methane an organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen. CH3CH2CH3 is propane and an organic compound. CO2 is not organic since it doesnt have any HYDROGEN along with the CARBON. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

The most common organic compounds found in living organisms are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. ORGANIC vs INORGANIC COMPOUNDS 1. Organic compounds are produced by living (biotic) things. Inorganic compounds are produced by non living (abiotic)

natural process or by human intervention in laboratory. 2.Inorganic compounds can form salts but organic can't . 3. Organic compounds contain carbon-hydrogen bonds. Inorganic compounds don't have carbon & hydrogen together . 5. Inorganic compounds contain metal atoms. Organic compounds don't . What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds? Inorganic compounds do not contain carbon. Organic compounds contain carbon and

hydrogen and usually are associated with living things What elements are most living things made of? CHONPS; Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus ,and Sulfur Which element is considered the foundation for making organic compounds? Why? Carbon; because adding different elements to carbon changes its physical and chemical

properties to make all the different organic compounds needed to support life such as carbohydrates, fats, waxes, oils, proteins , and DNA. Is the compound water (H2O) an organic compound? Explain. No, because the compound water does not have a carbon backbone. SUGARS

Plants make sugars, starch, and cellulose. with two simple molecules (CO2 and water). Consequently, sugars are used to make oils and fats. The general name for oils and fats are lipids. LIPIDS Lipids (oils and fats) are another class of organic

compounds built from oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. PROTEINS How do we make protein? Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen are amazing building blocks, but to make something as complicated as protein,

we need another element. That would be nitrogen. CARBOHYDRATES Some examples of carbohydrates. Sugar, starch, cellulose (wood fiber), and glycogen. Glycogen is like starch

but is created in animals for the purpose of storing chemical energy. The small black granules (dots) are glycogen. http://www.chemistryland.com/ElementarySchool/BuildingBlocks/BuildingOrganic.htm With energy from light, plants can build sugars (glucose) from carbon dioxide and water.

There are a number of elements such like sulfur, phosphorus,oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. SPONCH that are important for living systems. Carbon, the most important of these elements, is central to the chemistry of biological systems because of its unique bonding characteristics. Carbon compounds are usually classified as organic compounds

QUIZ For a molecule to be considered inorganic it must NOT contain____________________. Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur

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