Effects of plant diversity on nutrient cycling in a ...

Effects of plant diversity on nutrient cycling in a ...

Water Regulation and Adaptation Chap. 6 I. Water potential A. components B. water flow

II. Water balance A. water loss B. water gain III. Regulation & Adaptations plants & animals A. Terrestrial

B. Aquatic 1. Isoosmotic 2. Hypoosmotic 3. Hyperosmotic

Which way does water flow? Questions 1. How do you get water to the top of a 300 ft. tall redwood tree?

2. Why is soil under some trees more wet in the morning than the previous afternoon? Hint: it comes from the roots, not from rainfall. 3. Why are salmon so spectacular physiologically? (what makes going from fresh to salt water and

back again so remarkable)? Global Warming effects change in precipitation I. Water potential ()

A.The components = p + s + m + g B. Water flow Example up a tree,

down a water potential gradient Units = MPa Soil : Lower, more negative

Tension-cohesion mechanism Effect of water content on soil water

Effect of water content on soil : different soil types Effect of Relative Humidity on Air

S&R Fig.4-10 Hydraulic lift

II. Water balance W = Wg - Wl A. Water loss - Terrestrial organisms 1. Evaporation

Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) B. Water gain Drinking/root uptake

Uptake via body surface Water in food W = Wg - Wl Oxidation (metabolic water)

III. Regulation & Adaptations A. Terrestrial high potential for water loss 1. Intake metabolic water

http://www.calmzoo.org/stories/storyReader$229 1. Intake http://desert.bgu.ac.il/desert/bo/contentnet/ siteimgs/Prosopis%20Omer%20(3).jpg

Prosopis (mesquite) Fig. 5.12

2. Storage 3. Loss Physiological

Schmidt-Neilson 1995 3. Loss Behavioral reduce surface area

phenology Wilting 3. Loss

Linked behavior/morphology - vapor-limited evaporation - membrane-limited evaporation Fig. 5.16

Fig. 5.17 Tiger beetles cuticle thickness in different habitats 3. Loss

Linked behavior/morphology - vapor-limited evaporation - membrane-limited evaporation - Sclerophylls 4. Linked Temperature And Water

Adaptations C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis C3 Photosynthesis http://www.digitalfrog.com/resources/archives/leaf.jpg

C4 Distribution CAM Photosynthesis

B. Aquatic 5 Questions 1. Terms: Iso-osmotic (isomotic), hypo-osmotic (hyposmotic), hyperosmotic. 2. To what situations do these refer?

3. What do animals (fish, invertebrates) need to do in marine environments to maintain their water and salt balances? 4. What do animals (fish, inverts.) need to do in freshwater environments to maintain their water

and salt balances? 5. What about anadromous fish such as salmon? How must their physiology change when migrating from fresh to salt water and vice versa?

Isosmotic Saltwater hypo-osmotic

Freshwater hyperosmotic C4 Photosynthesis

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