System-Level Design Agenda Project Overview Customer Requirements Engineering Requirements Use-Case Scenario Functional Decomposition & Analysis Concept Generation - Morphological Table Feasibility Analysis Benchmarking Concept Selection Risk Assessment

Current State Action Items Project Overview Fifth TigerBot. Human-sized: >5 ft Ideally be used as a tour guide for RIT and as an inspiration to the younger generations. Objectives: working prototype by 2015s ImagineRIT. Meet specs: able to walk, untethered, avoiding obstacles, able to get up from falls, responding commands. Customer Requirements

Engineering Requirements Use-Case Scenario Functional Decomposition Functional Decomposition Functional Decomposition Functional Decomposition Morphological Table

Cyclical Drive Morphological Table Plumb Bob Feasibility Analysis Preliminary Feasibility Question Priority (U, H, M, L, P) Assumptions

Can components/limbs handle weight? Urgent Square tube construction Can we support untethered operation for 2+ hours? Low TBD Can servos/gearboxes handle required torque?

Urgent Flexible budget, power is non-issue, size limitation based on joints Can we get custom components made in timely manner? Medium Component design finalized Separate or unified power supplies? High

Rough idea of power requirements Single stage or multistage voltage regulators? Low Power requirements known Can we prevent overheating of electrical components? Urgent-High Power requirements known, circuit design finalized

Can we prevent overheating of servos? Urgent-High Power requirements known, torque requirements known Can we support human voice interaction? Preference Sufficient power, CPU operational w/ ROS Can we effectively balance?

Urgent Frame fully constructed, sufficient CPU speed, sensors interfaced Can we avoid obstacles? High Able to walk/balance, CPU w/ ROS, sensors interfaced Can we walk? Urgent

Able to balance, CPU w/ ROS, sensors interfaced Can the robot detect its location? Medium CPU w/ ROS, external support network, sensors interfaced Can the the robot detect its orientation? Urgent CPU w/ ROS, sensors interfaced

Can the robot provide real-time data feedback? Medium-Low CPU w/ ROS, external support (including MSD team) Torque Analysis Benchmarking Benchmark - TigerBots Benchmark - Batteries

Benchmark - Servos Teknic Demonstration Clearpath Integrated Servos Great Control on the torque Changes in fractions of a second Click Me Benchmark - Materials Concept Selection Unified vs. Separate Power Supplies

Unified: One battery pack for all power requirements Separate: Different packs, one to handle high current draw for servos, and one to handle lower draw for computing and sensors. Unified vs. Separate Power Supplies LM317 regulator chosen o Very common, easily replaced Can take max input voltage of 40VDC Servos will be run ~48+ VDC

Unified PSU is not feasible Single vs. Multi-stage Regulators Single: Linear regulator driving CPU, sensors Multistage: Linear regulator driving current source for CPU, sensors LM317 drives 1.5A o BeagleBone draws up to 2A OPA549

o Power op-amp o Drives 8A (five times LM317) LM317 to set threshold for OPA549, OPA drives current Multistage more advantageous High Torque Areas (Hips and Legs) Teknic ClearPath-MCPV (Precision Position Control) Absolute Positioning Pulse Burst Positioning Paired with select gearboxes will

allow required torque Low Torque Areas (Arms) McMaster-Carr DC Gearmotors Dont require a gearbox Can be set parallel to the joints or perpendicular to the joints. For use on shoulder and elbow joints. Materials Either Carbon Fiber Composites or Kevlar Epoxy

Carbon Fiber is light but prone to break from shock. Kevlar resists shocks Small Limbs/Joints Utilize Servos for each required DoF. Upper body has smaller load Use for arms and head. Large Limbs/Joints Toss up between worm gears, cycloidal gears, high torque servos and planetary gears

Points of interest where they are under heavy load Use for hips, thighs , knees and ankles. Hip / Torso Cycloidal Gear Zero Backlash HighTorque Great for balancing the hip Reduces energy use. Foot / Ankle Plates for Foot

Not Human Like Energetically Inefficient Anthropomorphical Foot Adopted Human oriented design Highly efficient Permits to increase foot clearance during leg swing. Thigh / Leg Shock Absorbers Placed strategically at the knee Relieves stress at the hip Sustains the weight of the robot Human-like-works like muscles

Connectivity WiFi or Bluetooth Wifi has longer range Bluetooth has lower power consumption Voice Interaction Use pre-existing software and code from previous tigerbots. Seems to work really well More time/resource to

focus on locomotion Risk Assessment Risk Cause Effect Likelihoo Severity Detect d Total

Mitigate Ownership Budget Overspending No money 3 1

3 9 Ask Sahin for money MSD Team Manpower Not enough engineer Incomplete Robot

9 1 1 9 Increase Man Hours MSD Team Collapse Design Failure

Injuries 9 9 3 Does not walk Design Failure Failed CR

9 1 3 27 Pass off to next MSD MSD Team Battery Shorts Wiring

Fire 9 9 1 81 Triple check/ Insulation EE Immobilized

No Power Difficult to Move 3 3 3 Back up power supply 27 (manual override) MSD Team

Theft Loose Security No Robot 3 1 1 3 Locking LAB

RIT Loss of Communication Communication Failure Loss of Control 3 1

3 9 Wired back-up CE/EE Components Breaking Too much stress Component Failure

3 3 1 9 Ansys Analysis ME Logistics/Delays Unknown delays

Gets pushed back 3 1 9 243 Harness/Padding RIT

27 Put in extra hours to catch up MSD Team Current State Feasibility Limb Design Joint Design Skeleton Design Power Calculations

Action Items Finalize all designs 3D model of skeleton Simulation in Webot with skeleton Spec out servos,gearboxes and batteries Ansys Structural Analysis

References Luo, Ren C., Chwan H. Chen, Yi H. Pu, and Jia R. Chang. "Towards Active Actuated Natural Walking Humanoid Robot Legs." IEEE Xplore. IEEE, June-July 2011. Web. 02 Oct. 2014. Takanishi, Atsuo and Kazuko Itoh. Some Issues in Humanoid Robot Design. IEEE Xplore. IEEE, Web. 02 Oct. 2014 Gini, Giuseppina, Umberto Scarfogliero, and Michele Folgheraiter. "Human-Oriented Biped

Robot Design: Insights into the Development of a Truly Anthropomorphic Leg." IEEE Xplore. IEEE, 10 Apr. 2007. Web. 02 Oct. 2014. Questions? Why is the robot angry?? Because someone kept pushing his buttons.

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