East Asia 1450 - 1750

East Asia 1450 - 1750

EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA 1450and the 1750 Transitions Quest for Political Stability THE MING DYNASTY Ming (brilliant) government (1368-1644) Drove the Mongols (end of Yuan dynasty) out of China Constantly faced threats rebuilt great wall Centralized government control Restored traditions, bureaucracy, civil service exam Ming attempted to recreate the past, not improve upon it Yongle Moved capital to Beijing Ming decline

Centralized government ran poorly under weak emperors Weak emperors isolated by eunuchs, advisors Public works fell into disrepair Coastal cities, trade disrupted by pirates, 1520 1560 Famines and peasant rebellions: 1630s and 1640s Rebellion by army units opens door to nomadic invasion Nomadic Manchu invaders led to final Ming collapse, 1644 THE QING DYNASTY Manchus (1644-1911) Nomadic invaders Originated in Manchuria Organized by Nurhaci Proclaimed Qing (pure) dynasty Originally pastoral nomads Military force called banner armies Captured Mongolia first, then China Remained an isolated ethnic elite Emperor Kangxi (1661-1722) Confucian scholar; effective, enlightened ruler Conquered Taiwan Extended control to Central Asia, Tibet, Sinkjiang

Emperor Qianlong (1736-1795) A sophisticated and learned ruler, poet, and artist Vietnam, Burma, Nepal made vassal states of China China was peaceful, prosperous, and powerful SON OF HEAVEN & SCHOLAR BUREAUCRATS Ming, Qing reestablish Sui, Tang, Song system Emperor considered "the son of heaven" Heavenly powers, maintained order on the earth Privileged life, awesome authority, paramount power Kowtow in his presence Governance of the empire Fell to civil servants, called scholar-bureaucrats Schooled in Confucian texts, calligraphy Examination system and Chinese society

Neo-Confucianism predominated Not nearly as flexible or vibrant as the previous system Civil service exam intensely competitive Few chosen for government positions Confucian curriculum fostered common values THE PATRIARCHAL SYSTEM Ming restored social system; Qing maintained traditions Basic unit of Chinese society =Family filial piety Family mirrored state-individual relations Confucian duties of loyalty, reciprocity Important functions of clan, extended families Educate poor relatives, maintain order, organize economy, and maintain welfare of all Gender relations Female infanticide; widows encouraged to commit suicide Footbinding of young girls increased Lowest status person in family was a young bride POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC

DEVELOPMENT Intense garden-style agriculture fed a large population Chinese began to expand to South, Yangtze valley, clear forested lands American food crops in seventeenth century Population growth: 80 million in 14th century to 300 million in 1800 Manufacturing and trade benefited from abundant, cheap labor Internal Commerce and Foreign trade Both expanded under Ming tremendously Brought wealth to the dynasty, merchants Threatened Confucian scholar-bureaucrats Kangxi began policy of strict control on foreign contact Exported tea, lacquer, silk, porcelain Imported gold, exotics, spices Western merchants restricted to ports of Macao and Quangzhou Western merchants often had to act through Chinese intermediaries Government and technology

China (along with much of Asia) was a labor intensive economy Ming, Qing dynasties considered technological change disruptive Abundant skilled labor, why not use it Preferred political and social stability. THE SOCIAL SYSTEM (top to bottom) Dynastic Family Privileged classes Peasants Largest class Artisans, other skilled workers Some economic status Merchants

Scholar-bureaucrats: passed the civil examinations Landed gentry: inherited land, wealth, titles Included priests, monks of Confucians, Taoists, Buddhists Often powerful and wealthy Had little social status as they made wealth through money Lower classes: slaves, servants, entertainers prostitutes TRADITION & NEW CULTURAL Neo-Confucianism INFLUENCES Confucianism Education, traditions supported by Ming and Qing emperors Popular culture Expanded to include novels, romances, travel adventures Example: The Romance of the Three Kingdoms novel set around fall of Han dynasty Imperial cultural projects: encyclopedias and libraries Christianity comes to China

Nestorian Christians not unknown in China, but had little influence Portuguese brought Catholicism to China, courts Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), an Italian Jesuit in the Ming court A learned man who mastered written and oral Chinese Impressed Chinese with European science and mathematics Popular mechanical devices: glass prisms, harpsichords, clocks Confucianism and Christianity Jesuits respectful of Chinese tradition, but won few converts Franciscan, Dominican missionaries criticized Jesuits' tolerance When pope upheld critics, Emperor Kangxi denounced Christianity TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE IN JAPAN TO 1867 The Warring States Period 15th century: Japanese civil war breaks out Japan divided into warring feudal estates Nobunaga, Hideyoshi attempt to unite Japan Nobunaga

Toyotomi Hideyoshi Innovative, brilliant general, merciless, from a minor family Deposed Ashikaga shogun, tries to conquer Japan Assassinated by vassal general Ablest general to Nobunaga but son of a peasant Wanted to break hold of daimyo, samurai Unites Japan temporarily 1590 Invades Korea; threatens to invade China, Philippines Tokugawa Ieyasu General to Hideyoshi, from a minor family Conquered Kanto, richest part of Japan Ended Korean campaign, concentrates on ruling Japan Wins civil war in 1600, establishes shogunate in 1603 Moves capital to Edo (Tokyo), reestablishes stability First need to control the daimyo, powerful local lords Each daimyo absolute lord within his domain Tokugawa required daimyo to live alternative years at Edo Bakufu controlled daimyo marriages, travel, expenditures

Daimyo allowed to rule lands, paid tax to the shogun TOKUGAWA GOVERNMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Emperor was honored as the head of state Actual power was held by the shogun Japan was an example of a centralized feudal state The title of shogun was hereditary within the Tokugawa family Shogun was in charge of courts, finance, appointed all officials Shogun was head of the army; made all grants of land to daimyo Daimyo were land holding samurai Some were powerful enough to challenge the Shogun The daimyo managed their domains or feudal possessions Greater samurai owned land but not much; lesser samurai were warriors SELF-IMPOSED ISOLATION The European Threat European contacts introduced clocks, guns, printing press Japanese learned to make guns, used them to unify Japan Guns threatened the social order: peasants could fire one, no art! New Ideas: Christianity Successful in converting much of Kyushu Christianity threatened social order

Difficult to unify Japan, control new contacts Control of foreign contacts Control Catholics Hideyoshi ordered missionaries to leave Not enforced closely at first Active persecutions began Tokugawa order Japanese to renounce faith Many thousands crucified for refusing Control Contacts Tokugawa banned Japanese from foreign contacts, travel/trade abroad Shoguns adopted policy of isolation Japan closed to outsiders 163s until 1854 Foreign trade was under tight restriction One Dutch ship a year allowed to come to Nagasaki Despite policy, Japan was never completely isolated JAPANESE SOCIAL CLASSES Strict 4-class system existed under Tokugawa

Samurai at the top of social hierarchy Followed by peasants, artisans, merchants. Members of classes not allowed to change social status Others: priests, entertainers Outcasts (eta): professions considered impure were 5th class Shoguns enacted laws governing hair style, dress, accessories Social change from 17th to 19th century Peace undermined social, economic role of warrior elites Shogun put samurai on regular salary: one koku per warrior Samurai began to move into castle-towns, which lowered their social status Became increasingly in debt as forced to maintain an expensive life style Rise of the Chonin: Merchants Cities became more numerous, populous giving rise to merchants Over time they were to become very wealthy and powerful Farmers Law outlined the duties and conduct of the farmers ECONOMIC, SOCIAL CHANGE Population growth and urbanization Agricultural production Population rose by 1/3 from 1600 to 1700

Expansion of cities Doubled between 1600 and 1700 Castle-Towns expanded: became cities Edo developed commerce, industry to support shogunate Economic and Commercial Changes Japanese begin to develop inter-coastal shipping Construction of well maintained national roads, bridges Crafts included carpentry, stonemasonry, sake-brewing, lacquering Japan traded sporadically with China, got American silver from China Honshu, Hokkaido, Shikoku, Kyushu NEO-CONFUCIANISM & JAPANESE CULTURE Neo-Confucianism (loyalty, submission) Became the official ideology of the Tokugawa But borrowing from Chinese culture avoided School of National Learning

Scholars of "native learning replace Confucian teaching Tried to establish distinctive Japanese identity Shinto emphasized Japanese Buddhism Each variety developed its own distinctive Japanese version Chan Buddhism became Zen Buddhism Zen was the most popular with samurai Outside Learning Tokugawa used outside learning if they controlled, regulated it Introduced printing press to Japan Dutch Learning Japanese scholars permitted to learn Dutch After 1720 some Japanese permitted to read Dutch books Shoguns became proponents of Dutch learning by mid-18 th century European art, medicine, and science influenced Japanese scholars "Floating worlds"-- centers of urban culture

Included teahouses, theaters, brothels, public baths Poet, novelists, art encourage Kabuki theaters and bunraku (puppet) very popular Development of tea ceremony, martial arts Ukiyoe school of art depicted every day life CHRISTIANITY AND JAPAN Christian missionaries Dominicans, Franciscans arrived with the Portuguese Jesuits came later Had significant success in sixteenth century with samurai, daimyo Adopted Japanese style wording, dress, manner including speaking Japanese St. Francis Xavier visited Japan Estimated that much of Kyushu including daimyo converted The Influence of Will Adams An Englishmen who was shipwrecked in Japan with a Dutch trade mission Extremely gifted linguist who became friend, advisor to Tokugawa; became a samurai

Adams was Protestant and hated Catholics; was very honest about facts with Tokugawa The real man behind Clavels great piece of fiction, Shogun Heavily influenced how Tokugawa came to see Catholics Anti-Christian campaign Launched by Tokugawa shoguns Feared anything that might help daimyos, weaken shogun Many daimyo were in contact with Europeans for weapons Buddhists and Confucians resented Christian exclusivity After 1612, Christians banned from islands Tokugawa Ieyasu told Catholics to renounce faith Many did, many more were crucified Thousands went underground only to reappear in 1854

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