Drug Slides Ch. 3

Drug Slides Ch. 3

Introduction to Drugs and Society Slide Series 1C Three Types of Drug Users Experimenter s: Begin using drugs largely because of peer pressure and curiosity, and they confine their use to recreational Generally, experimenters settings. enjoy using drugs with peers who also use recreational drugs.

What types of social settings have you witnessed experimentation of drugs? What types of drugs were being used? Three Types of Drug Users Compulsive users: Devote considerable time and energy into getting high, talk incessantly (sometimes exclusively) about drug use, and become connoisseurs of street drugs. For compulsive users recreational fun is impossible without getting high. Compulsive users need to

escape from problems, have problems assuming responsibility, and typically have other personal, social and legal problems Have you witnessed or had to live with a compulsive drug user? What were the personal, social, and legal problems did the user exhibit? Three Types of Drug Users Floaters or chippers : Focus more on using other peoples drugs without maintaining as much of a personal supply.

Floaters still have a need to relieve problems using drugs. Floaters may use drugs from both the experimental and compulsive users Floaters are marginally attached to conventional society and mask their drug use because they do not continually use drugs, yet. Media Influence on Drug Use Studies show that the majority of young drug users come from homes that liberally use drugs

Social Scientist believe that drug use is prompted by pace of lifestyle and greatly accelerated by sophisticated mass media. Each year, the alcohol industry spends more than $3.45 billion on advertising (television, radio, print, and outdoor ads). (FTC 2015) Media Influence on Drug

Use The advertising budget for Budweiser beer exceeds the entire budget for research on alcoholism and alcohol abusers. Drug companies spent $232 million a year on televised commercials for Viagra, Claritin, Allegra, and other drugs.

In 2014, drug makers spent $5.5 billion marketing prescription drugs (up from $3.5 billion in 2012). Teens viewing photos of inebriated friends posted on social media, such as Facebook, for example, are four times more likely to have used marijuana and three times more likely to have used

alcohol and tobacco. Adolescents and Elderly drug abuse and drug misuse See Section Signs and Symptoms, p. 36-37, text: Why do adolescents experiment with drugs and keep using them? What are the risk factors that increase risk of vulnerability to addiction among adolescents? See Section Here and Now, p. 39, first paragraph, text: What are both the

physical and psychological risk factors or drug misuse among the elderly? What are some methods of risk reduction? Drug Use and Dependence Why Are People Attracted to Drugs? People use drugs as a means to temporarily:

Experience pleasure or heighten good feelings Relieve stress, tension, or anxiety Forget ones problems and avoid or postpone worries Relax after a tension-filled day of work Fit in with peers or as a rite of passage Enhance religious or mystical experiences Relieve pain and some symptoms of illness When Does Use Lead to Abuse? The amount of drug taken or the frequency of dosing does not necessarily determine abuse (even though users who abuse drugs usually increase to higher

amounts). The motive for taking the drug is the most important factor in determining presence of abuse. When Does Use Lead to Abuse? Initial drug abuse symptoms include: 1. Excessive use 2. Constant preoccupation about the availability and supply of the drug 3. Refusal to admit excessive use 4. Reliance on the drug All four factors above can produce withdrawal symptoms that may prompt the user to spend more time and mental energy in self-supplying

and using the drug. Drug Dependence Substance Use Disorder (SUD) Drug Addiction Both physical and psychological factors precipitate drug dependence: Physical dependence refers to the need to continue taking the drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms, which often include feelings of discomfort and illness. Psychological dependence refers to the need that a user may feel (cognitive/emotive) about continuing the use of a drug to experience its effects and/or relieve withdrawal symptoms. Stages of Drug Dependence

Relief: Increased Use: Preoccupation: Initially, refers to the relief experienced. Satisfaction of escaping from negative feelings by using the drug Involves taking greater quantities of the drug Consists of a continuous

interest in and concern for the drug (having a supply, constantly thinking about use). Preoccupation behavior becomes normalized. Stages of Drug Dependence Dependency: A synonym for addiction; when more of the drug is sought despite the presence of negative physical symptoms.

Withdrawal: The physical and/or psychological signs and symptoms from not using the drug How would it be possible for the phases (stages) of the Drug Dependence Cycle to increase in both frequency and magnitude? Costs of Drug Use to Society Illnesses Shortened lifespans Marital and family strife Fetal alcohol syndrome Criminal behavior Drugs in the workplace/disruption of careers and professions

Cost of assistance programs (e.g., Employee Assistance Programs [EAPs]) Costs of Drug Use to Society: Statistics The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimates that the typical narcotic habit costs $150/day. A heroin addict must steal three to five times the actual cost of the drugs to maintain a habitabout $160,000 per year.

Three out of four prostitutes in major cities have a serious drug dependency. Drugs, Crime, and Violence Regarding the connection between drug use and crime, the following findings can be summarized: 1. Drug users in comparison to nondrug users are more likely to commit crimes. 2. A high percentage of arrestees are often under the influence of a drug while committing crimes. 3. A high percentage of drug users arrested for drug use and violence are more likely to be under the influence of alcohol and/or stimulant-types of drugs such as cocaine, crack, and methamphetamines.

Drugs in the Workplace In the United States, alcohol and drug use and their related problems costs employers and tax payers billions of dollars per year. The National Household surveys found significant drug use in the workplace with 64.3% of full-time workers reported alcohol use (7% to 9% drinking while working) and 6.4% reported marijuana use within the past month. (SAMHSA 2012) Link

Drugs in the Workplace (info not in text) The 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (SAMHSA 2013) found that 68.9% of the estimated 22.4 million illicit drug users, ages 18 or older, are employed full or part time. The same survey found that most binge drinkers and heavy alcohol users are also employed. Of adult binge drinkers, 79.3% (41.2 million people) are employed either full or part time. Of adult heavy drinkers, 76.1% (12.4 million people) are employed.

Drugs in the Workplace Among the 19 major industry categories, the highest rates of pastmonth illicit drug use among full-time workers ages 18 to 64 were found in accommodations and food services (19.1%), construction (11.6%), and arts, entertainment, and recreation (13.7%); (see Figure 1.10, slide #22). The industry categories with the lowest rates of past month illicit drug use were mining (5.0%), educational services (4.8%), and public administration (4.3%).

Employment Status Panel A Figure 1.0.9A: Panel A shows the percentages of past-month illicit drug use among persons aged 18 or older by employment status in 2013 and 2014. Panel B shows the numbers in millions of past-month illicit drug users based on employment status. Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Employment Status Panel B Figure 1.0.9B: Panel A shows the percentages of past-month illicit drug use among persons aged 18 or older by employment status in 2013 and 2014. Panel B shows the numbers in millions of past-month illicit drug users based on employment status. Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Illicit Drug Use by Industry

Figure 1.0.10: Illicit drug use by industry category: Past-month illicit drug use among fulltime workers aged 18 to 64: 20112012, combined. Reproduced from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Report. Worker Substance Use, by Industry Category. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, 24 March 2012. Drug Testing Is used to identify those who may be using drugs Today, drug testing can include the following: urine, breath, hair, oral fluids (saliva or oral fluids collected from the mouth), and sweat. (U.S. Department of Labor 2016) Duration of Detection /Cut-Offs for Urine Analysis: Amphetamines: 2472 hours Cocaine/metabolite: 2472 hours Opiates: 2472 hours

PCP: 2496 hours THC/metabolite: 24 hours3 weeks (depends on frequency of use) Note: Hair analysis 1 to 3 months for all drugs listed above Drug Testing Approximately 80% of large companies, 60% of medium companies, and 26% of small companies drug test. In large, medium, and small companies, over 90% use urine analysis, less than 20% use blood analysis, and less than 6% use hair analysis.

Most drug-using youth do not cease drug use when they begin working. The following drugs that are detectable differ in the length of time they are detectable (U.S. Department of Labor 2016): (FYI)

Alcohol: 1 oz. for 1.5 hours Amphetamines: 48 hours Barbiturates: 2 to 10 days Benzodiazepines: 2 to 3 weeks Cocaine: 2 to 10 days Heroin metabolites: Less than 1 day Morphine: 2 to 3 days LSD: 8 hours Marijuana: Casual use, 3 to 4 days; chronic use, several weeks Methamphetamine: 2 to 3 days Methadone: 2 to 3 days PCP: 1 week Holistic Self-Awareness Approach to Drug Use Holistic philosophy advocates that

the mind, body, and spirit work best when they are drug-free. End of PPT Series 1C End of Chapter One

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