Drawing Motion - Rochester Institute of Technology
Welcome to 2D & 3D Animation & Asset Production IGME.119.02 Instructor: Sten McKinzie Email: [email protected] Monday & Wednesday 6:30 7:45pm
Room 2750 Visual Story Telling Why look back? All new media are built on old media Theories and techniques from previous media
are adopted and adapted for new media As the new media grows it creates its own theories and techniques Even so, many of the established techniques remain The Frame
Has always been a factor in media What represents the frame in these medias? Film / Television Theatre Print Comics Video games
Until we are able to break through the hardware wall it will always exist Composing the Frame How we arrange our environment, props & subjects within the frame can effect how the
audience perceives it. This has been studied for thousands of years Many of the techniques remain consistent from painting to film to video games Frame Composition Leading Lines
Rule of Thirds Triangle Formation Leading Lines Lines are everywhere around us. Natural lines can strengthen composition by leading the viewer's eyes toward your subject.
Diagonal lines can add energy Curved lines can add soft elegance Using a road or path as a leading line can add depth Leading Lines
Leading Lines Leading Lines Rule of Thirds A centered image is boring There are certain "hotspots" - areas of
intensity that exist within any given image Align the subject within these hotspots for a more energetic and interesting composition Rule of Thirds This image shows the 4 Rule of Thirds "hotspots" where the red lines intersect
Rule of Thirds Rule of Thirds Rule of Thirds
Triangle Composition Occurs when the placement of the subjects (or group of elements themselves) form the shape of a triangle. To create depth Break up the image for variety in spacing Create a connection or relationship between the
different subjects Can help describe relationships between subjects visually when used properly Triangle Composition Triangle Composition
Territorial Space Consider the camera as our eye The cameras proximity to the subject is our proximity to the subject It is affected by the rules of territorial space
Territorial Space Outside of this all becomes public space
Territorial Space PUBLIC: 12 feet to 25 feet People generally ignore each other Alone in a crowd Keep their private space to themselves No intimacy
Territorial Space PUBLIC: 12 feet to 25 feet Territorial Space SOCIAL: Four feet to 12 feet
Boss/employee First date Job interview Cashier/customer
Territorial Space SOCIAL = formal Territorial Space PERSONAL: 18 inches to 4 feet Two people who have gone on a few dates, and
feel comfortable with each other, but still respect each others personal space Parent and child, but possibly in a more public setting Good friends sharing a conversation Territorial Space
PERSONAL: More discreet personal range Territorial Space INTIMATE: within 18 inches Two lovers Parent and child Two very good friends sharing a secret
Territorial Space INTIMATE: Very close Territorial Space INTIMATE: Very close (not necessarily comfortable)
Territorial Space When public space becomes intimate People crunched against each other on a crowded subway Try to keep their private space Forced intimacy
Territorial Space Consider the camera as our eye The cameras proximity to the subject is our proximity to the subject It is affected by the rules of territorial space Framing
Types of Shots ELS = Extreme Long Shot LS = Long Shot FS = Full Shot MS = Medium Shot OTS = Over The Shoulder shot
CU = Close Up shot ECU = Extreme Close Up OS = Out of Shot POV = Point Of View shot ELS: Extreme Long Shot Used in all genres
Epic films: enhance the experience of watching narratives that are epic in scale Important: used in films where locale plays an important role Westerns, historical films, war films, etc. ELS: Extreme Long Shot
Establishing Shot First shot in a film or sequence Establishes location Spatial frame of reference for closer shots Important: helps us to understand the greater picture of where the film or sequence is taking place and set the tone
ELS: Extreme Long Shot Dreams, Akira Kurosawa, 1990. Establishing shot. ELS: Extreme Long Shot
The Sting, George Roy Hill, 1974. Establishing shot. LS: Long Shot Distance is Subjective Generally considered the distance between audience and a theatrical stage Imagine sitting in the front to 10th row during
play Important: Places the subject in its surroundings (vs ELS) LS: Long Shot Ran, Akira Kurosawa, 1985.
LS: Long Shot Ran, Akira Kurosawa, 1985. FS: Full Shot
Specific category of Long Shot Think Full Shot = Full Body A human figure is framed head to feet
Can frame a single character or a group FS: Full Shot Smoke Signals, directed by Chris Eyre, 1998. MS: Medium Shot
Also called Mid-Shot or Middle Shot Equivalent distance of framing a character from head to midriff (can be as low as the knees) Often but not always waist to head MS: Medium Shot
TWO-SHOT: MS framing two characters Intimate distance Listening in on a conversation THREE-SHOT: MS framing three characters Any more than three characters would have to become a full shot
MS: Medium Shot Crooklyn, directed by Spike Lee, 1994. MS: Medium Shot
Juno, directed by Jason Reitman, 2007. THREE-SHOT. MS: Medium Shot Juno, directed by Jason Reitman, 2007. THREE-SHOT. OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot
Literally shooting over the shoulder of a character Back of characters head and shoulder are visible at one side of the frame Rest of the frame is filled by what has the characters attention We join the character in the experience,
empathy OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot E.T. the Extraterrestrial, Steven Spielberg, 1982. Empathy OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot
Used for conversation when director wants to highlight characters separately Shows the speaker when what is being said is important Shows the listener when the reaction to what is said is important
OTS: Over The Shoulder Shot Vertigo, Alfred Hitchcock, 1958. Converstation CU: Close Up Distance necessary to frame the human head Does not mean CU is always showing a head
Forces the audience to notice an important detail, such as an object or emotion Audience is inside subjects intimate space CU: Close Up Casablanca, directed by Michael Curtiz, 1942.
CU: Close Up Welcome to the Dollhouse, Todd Solondz, 1996. ECU: Extreme Close Up Most dramatic of all shots
When used properly, the extreme close-up can be very powerful Forces the audience to notice an important minute detail, such as an object or emotion Exaggerates the slightest movement Audience is way inside subjects intimate space
ECU: Extreme Close Up Meshes of the Afternoon, Maya Deren, 1943. POV: Point of View shot Shot that portrays the point of view of the character/actor
It tells us what they are looking at Overused in B-Horror Movies POV: Point of View shot Halloween, John Carpenter, 1978.
OS: Out of Shot Things can be made more dramatic by NOT showing them Show the reaction of the actor who IS in frame Exaggerates drama, keeps mystery OS: Out of Shot (Closure)
Humans have an innate ability to fill in the blanks Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud, 1993. OS: Out of Shot (Closure) When something is shown to us we
immediately rationalize it If we see nothing there is nothing to rationalize so imagination kicks in Our imaginations are far more powerful than any imagery OS: Out of Shot (Closure)
Directors can use this to heighten a sense of drama Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud, 1993. OS: Out of Shot (Closure) I may have drawn the
axe being raised, but I am not the one who let it drop or decided how hard the blow or who screamed or why. That, dear reader, was your special crime. Each of
you committed it in your own style. Understanding Comics, Scott McCloud Camera Angles 6 Basic Angles Birds Eye View
North by Northwest, Alfred Hitchcock, 1959. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=npMQ7FD2m1g&feature=related Birds Eye View
This shows a scene from high overhead Disorienting
Abstracts familiar objects Audience in a godlike position Subject made to look insignificant, ant-like, part of a wider scheme of things. High Angle
Psycho, Alfred Hitchcock, 1959. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsgDP31v2LE High Angle The camera is elevated above the action Can be used to give a sense of general overview. (ex: an office scene)
Important of the setting or environment, surrounding the subject(s), increases Movement is slowed down (look closer at this compared to low angle) Good for conveying tedium High Angle
Subject is reduced in height Viewer is put in a power position
Reduces importance of the subject A person will seem harmless, insignificant and even threatened Effective for conveying self-contempt Eye Level
Drunken Angel, Akira Kurosawa, 1948. Eye Level Neutral shot The camera will be placed eye level with the subject Subject becomes ordinary
Audience is left to make its own judgment on the characters presented Character has human proportions (vs subhuman or super human) Low Angle Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb ,
Stanley Kubrick, 1964. Low Angle Gives the subject importance, power, dominance Background tends to be sky or ceiling, separating the subject from its environment
Can be used to inspire fear and insecurity in the viewer Speeds up action (vs High Angle) - Do you agree, why? Discussion: 12 Angry Men Filmed primarily in
one room Over the course of the film, angles were changed to convey specific emotions Discussion: 12 Angry Men
High Angle / Long Shot 12 Angry Men, Sidney Lumet, 1957. Discussion: 12 Angry Men Eye Level / Medium Shot
12 Angry Men, Sidney Lumet, 1957. Discussion: 12 Angry Men Low Angle / Close Up 12 Angry Men, Sidney Lumet, 1957.
Oblique Angle (Dutch Angle) Terminator 2: Judgement Day , James Cameron, 1991. Oblique Angle (Dutch Angle) Suggests imbalance, transition, violence and instability
This technique is often used to suggest Pointof-View shots. Frequently used in Film Noir Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique German Expressionists first to make use The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari 1920 silent film directed
by Robert Wiene Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique Became very popular in Noir Films Like The Third Man, 1949, directed by Carol Reed
Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique Batman TV Show of the 1960s over used it and made it cheesy Oblique Angle: Origins and Death of a Technique
Has been brought back by filmmakers like Quentin Tarantino and Robert Rodriguez Kill Bill V1, Quentin Tarantino, 2003. Oblique & Low Angle
Kill Bill V1, Quentin Tarantino, 2003. Placement Within Frame Certain areas within the frame can suggest symbolic ideas. The filmmaker can radically alter the comment on that object or character.
Here form IS content. Center Frame Instinctively regarded as the natural center of interest. The Big Lebowski, The Coen Brothers, 1998.
Center Frame A portrait photographer, centers the individual or group in the viewfinder. A child draws objects in the center of the page we expect to see objects in the center, therefore:
OBJECTS IN CENTER = LACK OF DRAMA Center Frame When the filmmaker wants to focus on what the actor is saying, or feeling Minimizes distraction by other things all attention is focused on the subject
The Big Lebowski, The Coen Brothers, 1998. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be7Og9Gc_KY Center Frame Examples of objects that would appear in the center of the screen The Mundane
A person talking in a matter-of-fact tone of voice A bouquet of flowers on a table
A letter being read by an actor A close-up of a key turning in a lock Often used when the director wants the audience to focus on OS (out of shot) sound Top of Frame
Suggests power, authority, and aspiration. This works for both people and objects. Bend it Like Beckham, Gurinder Chadha, 2002. Top of Frame
Seven Samurai, Akira Kurosawa, 1954. Top of Frame Examples of objects that would appear in the top of the frame Perceived Power
Overbearing parent A Killer Religious iconography Rock star A spooky castle Top of Frame
Not all objects placed near the top of the screen are there for symbolic purposes Bend it Like Beckham, Gurinder Chadha, 2002. Top of Frame Examples of objects that appear at the top of
the screen because that is where they arbitrarily must fall:
Peoples heads Tops of trees Tall buildings The sky Mountains
Bottom of Frame Bend it Like Beckham, Gurinder Chadha, 2002. Bottom of Frame Gives the sensation that objects (people) are ready to fall out of the bottom of the frame.
Insignificant Unimportant Shy Defeated Sad Lonely
Sides of Frame Objects tend to feel insignificant, due to distance from the center of the screen. Characters feel as though they are close to the darkness, due to proximity to the black edges of the screen. Figures who are trying to hide may also
appear at the sides of the screen. Sides of Frame Psycho, Hitchcock, 1960. Sides of Frame
How does Janet Leighs position on-screen make you feel? She seems as though she is powerless It feels as though she is grabbing on and trying to keep herself in the frame Cast off, barely there
http://www.floobynooby.com/IPUB/comp1.html Project 2: Animated Cut scene or Open Project 2 will be to create a 20 second (min) animated sequence for your platform level It can be used as the intro to the level or the
cut scene after the level or can be split between the 2 You can also use it for the win or lose sequence Project 2a: Storyboards Break out the shots for your cut scene into
storyboard sketches Minimum of 10 shots Use the camera angles, proximity and composition to convey enhance the drama for the audience Storyboard Terminology Sheet
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