UNIT 4: Space and Earth Science Lesson 1 SPACE FLIGHT TO THE STARS Looking Back in Time In all societies, people have looked to the night sky for inspiration, to find
directions, to decide when to plant or harvest crops, or just to appreciate its great beauty Celestial is a term that refers to the sky. Celestial Objects Objects in the sky that we can see The Sun, the Moon, Earth, other planets, and
comets are all examples of celestial objects. Astronomy is the study of the universe and the objects in it. An astronomer is a person who studies astronomy. Speed of light
Light takes time to travel. At short distances, this delay does not make a difference. However, when you are looking out into space, the delays begin to add up. For example, it takes about 1.5 s for the light to reach Earth from the Moon (Figure 7.2). We therefore always see the Moon as it was 1.5 s ago. The planet Jupiter, farther from Earth than the Moon is, appears to us
as it did 45 min before. From Earth to the Stars of the Milky Way The solar system is the Sun together with all the planets and other celestial objects that are held by the Suns gravitational attraction and orbit around it. Among the other
celestial objects in the solar system are moons, comets, and asteroids. The Sun and Inner Solar System The Sun and Inner Solar System The Moon Twelve people have walked on the
Moon, the last time in 1972. With their Apollo spacecraft travelling about 30 times the speed of a jet airplane, the astronauts trip to the Moon took four days. It has no atmosphere and little or no water. As the Moon orbits Earth, it rotates at a speed that keeps the same side always
facing Earth. The Sun and Inner Solar System The Sun A star is a hot ball of plasma, an electrically charged gas, that shines because nuclear fusion is taking place at its core. Nuclear fusion is the process in
which the nuclei of atoms fuse together and form larger atoms. During this process, an enormous amount of energy is released. The Sun and Inner Solar System Other Planets Between the Earth and the Sun are
Mercury and Venus Behind the Earths is Mars which is the last of the 4 rocky planets that make up the inner solar system. Measuring Distances in Space is so huge that the use of
Space kilometres impractical, thus the astronomical unit was created. One astronomical unit (AU) equals the average distance between the Sun and Earth, about 150 million km. Example: Mercury is 0.39 AU from the Sun. Mars is 1.52 AU from the Sun.
Measuring Distances in Outside Space of the solar system AU units become impractical and so distance is measured in light years One light-year (ly) equals the distance that a beam of light can travel through
space in 1 year. It is equivalent to 63 000 AU or 9000 billion km. At the speed of light, you could travel around Earth seven times in 1 s. A trip from the Sun to Neptune at the speed of light takes about 5 h. The Outer Solar System The Outer Solar System
Out past Mars, we encounter the asteroid belt, a region of rocky debris that forms a ring all the way around the Sun at a distance of about 3 AU. The asteroid belt contains billions of pieces of rock of all sizes. Beyond the asteroid belt lie the four gas giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
The Outer Solar System Jupiter could fit several thousand Earths inside it. The gas giant planets do not resemble Earth at all. Their atmospheres are made mostly of hydrogen and helium. The planet farthest out in the solar system is Neptune, in orbit 30.1 AU away from the Sun.
The Outer Solar System Besides the eight major planets there are other objects such as moons, comets, minor planets such as Pluto, and tiny grains of dust and ice. Some of these objects are held up to 50 000 AU away. To the Stars
The Centauri system (3 stars) is the next closest group of starts to Earth, 4.3 ly away. To the Stars A system with two stars is called a binary system.
To the Stars The title of brightest star visible from Earth goes to Sirius, even though it is nearly twice as far from us as the Centauri system is. Sirius is brighter because it is a different kind of star than the Centauri stars. Sirius is about twice the mass of our Sun.
Exploding Stars When a star explodes, it is called a supernova. The gradual build-up of heavy elements in the star's centre causes the core to collapse. The outer layers of the star are pulled into the core by gravity. As the outer material crashes into the inner core, the temperature and pressure increase and the star explodes.
Exploding Stars High pressures and temperatures created during the supernova explosion lead to the formation of new elements. As the star rips apart, debris from the explosion provides the matter for another type of celestial object, a
nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of dust and gas. Nebulae are often called star nurseries, because it is from their dust and gas that stars develop. Currently, about one supernova a week is detected by telescopes that are based in orbit and can scan deep
space The Milky Way The group of stars in our galactic home is called the Milky Way. We cannot see the entire Milky Way directly because the solar system is inside it. The shape of it is sort of like a pinwheel. A galaxy with this shape is known as a spiral
galaxy. Other shapes of Galaxies - Barred spiral Elliptical Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Scientific Notation
Scientific notation helps to make very large numbers shorter and easier to handle. Scientific notation is based on powers written using the base number 10. For instance, using scientific notation to write the number 321 000 000 000 results in 3.21 1011. The first part of the number (in this case, 3.21) is always greater than or equal to 1 but less
than 10. The second part of the number is a power with base 10 and an exponent number (in this case, 11, written in superscript, raised and set up to the right of the 10). Scientific Notation Example: The speed of light is about 299 800 000
m/s. Write this in scientific notation. Step 1: Put a decimal point after the first digit on the left. This gives 2.99 800 000 for the example. Step 2: Count the number of places from the decimal point to the end of the zeros. For 2.99 800 000, there are eight places. This means the power of base 10 has an exponent of 8, written as 108.
Step 3: Delete the zeroes. The number written in scientific notation is 2.998 108 m/s. Write the following numbers in scientific notation: Scientific Notation Complete the scientific notation questions first Then complete the All These Worlds worksheet as a group
Then complete the questions on the note for homework.
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