DNA

DNA

DNA What is DNA? Contains all genetic information of the entire organism Located in the nucleus of all cells (with a few exceptions!) mature red blood cells have no nucleus sex cells have half the amount of genetic

information (haploid) A full set in humans is 46 chromosomes Made up of 23 pairs (diploid) But not in all animals! Organism # of Chromosome Pairs

Human 23 Drosophila (fruit fly) 4

E.coli (bacteria) Mosquito 4 3 Fly 4

Frog 18 Cat 19

Chimpanzee 24 Horse 32 Dog

39 Onion 8 Peanut

12 DNA spends most of its time in a long string called chromatin During cell division, chromatin coils up tightly to form chromosomes the section of DNA that codes for a protein is called a gene

DNA -> RNA -> Protein (made of amino acid) DNA Structure In 1952, Rosalind Franklin obtained images of DNA using X-ray crystallography, an idea first proposed by Maurice Wilkins. In 1953 Watson and Crick solved the puzzle of DNAs structure after viewing these x-ray

images DNA Structure DNA is made of nucleotides composed of 3 parts 5 carbon sugar: deoxyribose one nitrogenous base (4 possible options!) phosphate group DNA:

Deoxyribo Nucleic acid There are two types of nitrogenous bases: 1. Purines -Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) -2 fused rings 2. Pyrimidines -Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T) -only one ring

Adenine ALWAYS bonds with thymine Guanine ALWAYS bonds with cytosine -this is called complimentary base pairing DNA looks like a twisted ladder This arrangement is called a double helix Alternating sugar and phosphates make up the backbone (the rails of the ladder)

Bases make up the rungs and are held together by weak hydrogen bonds

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