Discover Biology, 5th Ed., C8

Discover Biology, 5th Ed., C8

Discover Biology, 5th Ed., C8 Energy, Metabolism, & Enzymes pp 186-203 Metabolism All chemical reactions in an organism that Capture energy

Photosynthesis & chemosynthesis (autotroph) Harvest from other organisms (heterotroph) Store energy ATP; GTP; NADH; NADPH; FADH2; chemical bond P.E. Elastic potential energy

Use energy Anabolism (make molecules) Catabolism (degrade molecules) Metabolic pathways Chemical reactions are LINKED Temporally

Spatially Substrates react to form products Biomolecules for structure & function Signals for cell-cell & cell-environment interaction Enzymes catalyze these reactions

Proteins, usually, but also RNA as ribozymes Lower activation energy ENERGY = ability to do work Potential energy Gravitational Chemical bond

Elastic Kinetic energy (motion) Nuclear - Mechanical Electromagnetic - Light (Radiant)

Sound - Heat (thermal) Laws of Thermodynamics First Law Energy is neither created nor destroyed Energy can be converted to other forms

Second Law Entropy (disorder) increases in the universe As order increases in a cell, disorder increases in its surroundings External energy must be used to maintain order in a cell/ living system

Lost Energy Heat accompanies motion Friction Brownian motion Metabolic heat accompanies biochemical

reactions Dissipates Unusable Disorganized Photosynthesis: Light Reaction

Sun radiant energy excites chlorophyll as electrons Located in thylakoid membranes/ grana of chloroplast

Electrons move from Photosystem II to Photosystem I NADP+ + electron reduction NADPH (e- carrier) 2H2O 4HH+ (Protons) + 4H e- + O2 at Photosystem II

Electrons move down ETC [e- transport chain] Proton gradient supplemented by H+ pump H+ move passively via ATP Synthase across thylakoid ATP is generated in stroma of chloroplast Photosynthesis: Chemiosmosis

Photosynthesis: Anabolism Catabolism Cellular respiration Glycolysis: Glucose 2 (pyruvates + ATP + NADH) Fermentation: Pyruvate Ethanol + CO2lactic acid + NAD+ Aerobic respiration: Pyruvate Krebs cycle

Krebs cycle (Citric acid cycle) Acetyl CoA enters mitochondrial matrix Acetyl CoA + oxaloacetate citric acid Generates 2 CO2 + 3 NADH, 1 GTP, & 1 FADH2 Glycolysis

Mitochondrial Chemiosmosis Redox Reaction Paired together: 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP C6H12O6 Reduction reactions Gain electrons

CO2 is reduced Oxidation reactions Lose electrons H atoms are oxidized in H2O 4H Fe + 3O2 2 Fe2O3 (rust)

Enzymes = Biological Catalysts Induced Fit Model

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Agriculture Sector Jakarta, Indonesia

    Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Agriculture Sector Jakarta, Indonesia

    It is not the characteristic of there being not enough food to eat. While the later can cause the former, it is but one of many possible causes." A. Sen, Poverty and Famines, An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, 1981,...
  • Financial Structure

    Financial Structure

    Financial Structure Chapter 35 Initial Financing 1. Debt Securities (bonds) Debtor/Creditor relationship 2. Equity Securities (stock) Shareholders ownership interest Debt Financing Short Term Securing short term bank credit Assigning Accounts Receivable Issuing short term promissory notes Long Term Sale of...
  • Research Services Faculty Teams

    Research Services Faculty Teams

    Research Services - Faculty of Engineering Team (incl Imperial College Business School) * * * Research Services Faculty Teams Chief Coordinating Officer Dr. John Green Head of Research Services Faculty of Medicine David Langley Research Services Manager Hammersmith Deslyn Brown...
  • Thoreaus Life Born July 1817 Died of TB

    Thoreaus Life Born July 1817 Died of TB

    Thoreau's Life Born July 1817 Died of TB at age 44 in May 1862 Educated at Harvard Long friendship with Emerson Mixed philosophy with action Beginnings at Walden pond Moved to pond on July 4, 1845 Wrote first book and...
  • QoS Handling of Trigger Frame - IEEE Standards Association

    QoS Handling of Trigger Frame - IEEE Standards Association

    Name. Affiliation. Address. Phone. Email. Albert Van Zelst. Qualcomm. Straatweg 66-S Breukelen, 3621 BR Netherlands [email protected] Alice Chen. 5775 ...
  • Presentación de PowerPoint

    Presentación de PowerPoint

    Lucas 4,1-13 En aquel tiempo, Jesús, lleno del Espíritu Santo, regresó de las orillas del Jordán y durante cuarenta días, el Espíritu lo fue llevando por el desierto, mientras era tentado por el diablo. No comió nada durante esos días,...
  • MTH4410 MTH4410 Constraint Programming Programming Constraint Merci  Willem-Jan

    MTH4410 MTH4410 Constraint Programming Programming Constraint Merci Willem-Jan

    In 2007, it was voted the "Best Container Terminal (Asia)" for the 18th time at the Asian Freight and Supply Chain Awards. Railroad Optimization. Netherlands Railways has among the densest rail networks in the world, with 5,500 trains per day...
  • Session Title Session Subtitle

    Session Title Session Subtitle

    Dennis Wilson. Eastern Washington University. Business Intelligence. Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. NWEUG. 2015. ... You will learn how we use Banner and Data Mining tools to identify students at risk. Learn about factors that influence student retention. We will share our...