Unit 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Day 5: Metathesis Reactions and Gravimetric Analysis Warm Up WHICH CHEMICAL EQUATION IS CORRECT? HINT: Look at solubility rules
1. Fe2(SO4)3 (aq) + 3 Li2S (aq) Fe2S3 (aq) + 3 Li2SO4 (aq) 2. CaCl2 (aq) + 2 NH4OH (aq) Ca(OH)2 (s) + 2 NH4Cl (aq) 3. Nal2 (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) NaNO3 (aq) + AgI2 (s) TIME: 8 MINUTES WHEN DONE: Show me for a stamp Which set includes only substances that
produce electrolytes in water? a. NaBr, KCl, MgSO4 b. C6H12O6, CH3OH, C6H6 c. HCl, NH3, Cl2, N2 d. SiO2, CaCO3, H2SO4 Which set includes only substances that
produce electrolytes in water? a. NaBr, KCl, MgSO4 b. C6H12O6, CH3OH, C6H6 c. HCl, NH3, Cl2, N2 d. SiO2, CaCO3, H2SO4 Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 KNO3 The physical evidence that the
above reaction occurs is a. b. c. d. an explosion. the formation of a gas. that the solution boils.
the formation of a precipitate. Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 KNO3 The physical evidence that the above reaction occurs is a. b. c. d.
an explosion. the formation of a gas. that the solution boils. the formation of a precipitate. produce a precipitate if solutions of appropriate concentrations are
mixed together? a. H2SO4 and NaOH b. HNO3 and CaCl2 c. Ba(NO3)2 and Na3PO4 d. LiCl and SrI2 produce a precipitate if solutions of appropriate concentrations are
mixed together? a. H2SO4 and NaOH b. HNO3 and CaCl2 c. Ba(NO3)2 and Na3PO4 d. LiCl and SrI2 Agenda
Double Displacement/Metathesis Reactions Ways to Represent Metathesis Rxn Guided Inquiry: Net Ionic Equations Intro to Gravimetric Analysis Work Time
Acids The Swedish physicist and chemist S. A. Arrhenius defined acids as substances that increase the concentration of H+ when dissolved in water.
Both the Danish chemist J. N. Brnsted and the British chemist T. M. Lowry defined them as proton donors. Bases Arrhenius defined bases as substances
that increase the concentration of OH when dissolved in water. Brnsted and Lowry defined them as proton acceptors (react with H+) Strong or Weak? Strong acids completely dissociate in water;
weak acids only partially dissociate. Strong bases dissociate to metal cations and hydroxide anions in water; weak bases only partially react to produce hydroxide anions. Learning Check Strong vs. Weak Electrolytes If we remember the common strong acids and
bases (table 4.2) and that NH3 is a weak base, we can make reasonable predictions about the electrolytic strength of a lot of compounds! Acid-Base Reactions In an acidbase reaction, the acid (H2O above) donates a proton (H+) to the base (NH3 above). Reactions between an acid and a base are called
neutralization reactions. When the base is a metal hydroxide, water and a salt (an ionic compound) are produced. Ways to Write Metathesis Reactions Molecular Complete
Ionic Net Ionic Neutralization Reactions (Not all form precipitate!) Neutralization Reactions
When a strong acid (like HCl) reacts with a strong base (like NaOH), the net ionic equation is circled below: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) H+(aq) + Cl(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH(aq) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq) + H2O(l) H+(aq) + OH(aq) H2O(l) METATHESIS REACTIONS
Molecular Equations Complete Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equations
Neutralization Reactions Gas Forming Reactions Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions Metathesis comes from a Greek word that means to transpose. It appears as though the ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions, as seen in the
equation below. AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq) Completing and Balancing Metathesis Equations Steps to follow 1) Use the chemical formulas of the reactants to determine which ions are present. 2) Write formulas for the products: cation from
one reactant, anion from the other. Use charges to write proper subscripts. 3) Check your solubility rules. If either product is insoluble, a precipitate forms. 4) Balance the equation. Which of these are soluble? (NH4)2S, CaCO3, NaOH, Ag2SO4, Pb(CH3COOH)2
Predict the identity of the precipitate When MgCl2 and CaS are mixed. Write the balanced equation. Predict the identity of the precipitate When solutions of Fe2(SO4)3 and LiOH are mixed. Write the balanced equation. Yes or No?
Will a precipitate form when Ba(NO3)2 and KOH are mixed? Ways to Write Metathesis Reactions Molecular Net Ionic
Complete Ionic Molecular Equation The molecular equation lists the reactants and products without indicating the ionic nature of the compounds. AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) AgCl(s) +
KNO3(aq) Complete Ionic Equation In the complete ionic equation all strong electrolytes (strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic salts) are dissociated into their ions. This more accurately reflects the species that are found in the reaction mixture.
Ag+(aq) + NO3(aq) + K+(aq) + Cl(aq) AgCl(s) + K+(aq) + NO3(aq) Net Ionic Equation To form the net ionic equation, cross out anything that does not change from the left side of the equation to the right. The ions crossed out are called spectator ions, K+ and NO3, in this example.
The remaining ions are the reactants that form the productan insoluble salt in a precipitation reaction, as in this example. Ag+(aq) + NO3(aq) + K+(aq) + Cl(aq) AgCl(s) + K+(aq) + NO3(aq) Writing Net Ionic Equations 1. Write a balanced molecular equation. 2. Dissociate all strong electrolytes.
3. Cross out anything that remains unchanged from the left side to the right side of the equation. 4. Write the net ionic equation with the species that remain. Writing Net Ionic Equations Write the net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of silver
nitrate and potassium phosphate are mixed. Writing Net Ionic Equations Write the net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and potassium phosphate are mixed. Guided Inquiry: Net Ionic Equations WORK ON: Guided Inquiry
Questions REVIEW PAGE 1 & 2: In 11 minutes DUE: Next class TIME: 22 MINUTES WHEN DONE: Check answers with ANSWER KEY Intro to Gravimetric Analysis WATCH VIDEO:
On Gravimetric Analysis TAKE NOTES: On example problem TIME: 14 MINUTES WHEN DONE: Write Questions in the Margins
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