Developing Qualitative Research Questions What questions do you aim to answer? Qualitative Research Questions 1. What are some common concerns teachers have about the introduction of the NEAT test in relation to washback? 2. How can teacher education programs better prepare teachers for the reality of classroom teaching? 3. From learners perspective what specific features (personal and/ or pedagogical) do good language teachers have? Multiple RQs
The following questions served as the basis for this study. 1. To what extent are Korean in-service high-school English teachers supportive of the introduction of the NEAT? Why? 2. What are some common concerns teachers have about its introduction in relation to washback? 3. What actions can be taken to facilitate the introduction of the new testing system? Introduction A clear and appropriate research question, or set of interrelated questions, provide the foundation for your research. Poor research questions can lead to poor research
Your aim is to write a clear question, or set of interrelated questions, which allow you to go about finding answers in a focused and systematic way. Central Research Question help answer Sub RQ1 Sub RQ1 Sub RQ1 Common Problems Deciding which area to look at from a range of issues that
interest you Not being able to think of any area or topic you find sufficiently interesting Knowing which area you want to focus on (for example, education) but not a specific topic. Knowing what area and topic but finding it difficult to clearly articulate a question. Focus your RQs on: Exploring effects Understanding issues
Gathering participants perceptions Open/flexible responses Not proving Not measuring Not strong hypotheses Asking the Right Questions In qualitative research we ask things like:
How are things done? Or how do people perceive how things are done? What factors contribute to an outcome? In what ways do people view a certain issue or problem? In what ways people feel that an issue can be resolved? To what extent people have been affected by something? In what ways do people deal with a certain situation and why?
RQs in qualitative research Descriptive RQs Ask about what actually happened. Interpretive RQs Ask about the meaning of what happened to those involved. Theoretical RQ Ask about why those things happened. Good Vs Bad RQs Specific Focus your research Require research to answer
Can be answered through research Are important to the field Are manageable not too broad or too narrow Have simple and easy answers (can be googled) Can be answered in one word or one sentence Have no answer
Are only a matter or opinion Are too complicated or too broad Are too vague Examples of Problematic RQs: What is the best way to teach ELLs oral skills? Have simple and easy What can we do to teach English to students effectively? Can be answered in one
Do Korean English teachers use Korean when they teach English? Does working in groups contribute to learners ability reflect on their own language learning abilities and need to study more? Do Korean English teachers enjoy their job? answers (can be googled) word or one sentence Have no answer Are only a matter or opinion Are too complicated or too broad
Are too vague Examples of Good RQs: What are the characteristics of oral English language instruction provided to 10th-grade ELLs at a public school? What is the impact of explicit writing-strategy instruction for a group of 5th-grade public school ELLs ? In what ways does the Korean English teachers use of L1 in the classroom support L2 development in learners? In what ways does working in groups contribute to learners ability reflect on their own language learning abilities?
How do Korean public high-school teachers perceive their roles as language teachers? Specific Focus your research Require research to answer Can be answered through research
Are important to the field Are manageable not too broad or too narrow Tips 1. Ask only a few general questions [no Yes/No questions] to permit participants to share information with you 2. Ask questions that are neutral exploratory language that does not convey conclusions you expect 3. Design and write 2 question types: Central Questions and Sub-Questions 4. Dont worry too much at the beginning, questions often change throughout planning.
Central & Sub RQs Central Research Question help answer Sub RQ1 Sub RQ1 Sub RQ1 Central & Sub-RQs What does it mean (to practitioners) to be a professional teacher? From practitioners perspective, what do professional teachers do? What don't professional teachers do?
How can language teachers be good leaders for their learners? In what ways do learners see language teachers as leaders? From learners perspective, what specific (personal and pedagogical) features and characteristics contribute to a good language teacher leader? Good or Bad? What core components (i.e. knowledge, skills, and abilities) do local teachers need in EFL language classrooms in the global era? Which methodology is the most suitable in South Korean English language classrooms? What main factors positively and negatively contribute to the professional development and growth of local teachers in EFL settings? Does memorizing 10 English words a day lead to better writing skills in EFL learners?
Prompts In what ways are participants affected by X? What factors contribute to X? How does A affect B? In what ways does A affect B? How do participants view X.? What role does X play in Y? References
Agee, J. (2009). Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 22 (4), 43147. doi:10.1080/09518390902736512. Andrews, R. (2003). Research Questions. London: Continum. Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications. Additional Information
Grounded theory: What are the attitudes of elderly people with stroke towards the daily use of assistive devices and technologies? Phenomenology: What role does the therapists spirituality play in the treatment of his or her patients? How do female high school teachers who have been physically assaulted by students overcome their fears so they can effectively teach? Ethnography: How do adolescent Latinas/Latinos conceptualize classroom participation processes shape active oral participation?
Narrative inquiry: How does a good everyday life come about when living with chronic rheumatic conditions? Case study: What strategies are being used by small businesses that have effective and viable workplace wellness programs?
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