Density of Liquids and Solids Experiment 2 What is the Density? He atoms have a mass of 4 amu and are about 3 nm apart Density is how compact a substance is How close are all the atoms to each other and how heavy are those atoms? We define the density, d, to be For He For Au
Gold is 0.5 million times more dense! Au atoms have a mass of nearly 197 amu and are about 0.4 nm apart Measuring the Density To measure the density we need to measure the mass, m and the volume V Then we divide the mass, m, by the volume, V, to get the density d What we are measuring with Today
Masses with top loader open balance Volume with a 50 mL or 100 mL measuring cylinder Volume with a volumetric pipette Temperature with a thermometer
Length/Width/Height with a ruler measuring cm Appropriate Significant Figures Masses with top loader open balance Report m to .01 g ie 100.54 g Volume with a 50 mL or 100 mL measuring cylinder
Report V to 0.1 mL . ie 52.5 mL Volume with a volumetric pipette Report V to 0.01 mL i.e. 5.00 mL Temperature with a thermometer Report T to 0.1oC i.e. 26.5oC Density: Getting the Mass m When dealing with liquids and gases, we measure the mass of our
unknown, munk, indirectly by a technique called weighing by difference. First weigh empty flask or beaker to get m1 Then weigh the same flask with some amount of your unknown in it to get m2 m1 = 101.01 g m2 = 204.32 g The mass of your unknown munk = m2 m1 = 204.32g - 101.01g munk = 103.31g Density: Getting the Volume: Solids Then to get the density we need to measure the volume the way this is measured is
different depending on if we have a solid or a liquid We can get the volume Vunk of an insoluble, irregularly-shaped, solid using volume by displacement V2 = 266 mL V1 = 195 mL Vunk = V2 V1 = 266 mL 195 mL = 71mL Density: Getting the Volume: Liquid Best to use a pipette Or burette Volume of Rectangular Solid
Measure, length L, width W, and height H Measure the length L, width W and height H L = 6.95 cm 3 sig figs is the limiting # sig figs W = 4.25 cm H = 4.35 cm Calculate the Volume V=LxWxH V = 6.95 cm x 4.25 cm x 4.35 cm V = 128.488125 cm3 Express the answer to the correct sig. figs. V = 128 cm3
L = 6.95 c m Calculating the Density Density of a Liquid 10.00mL of a liquid pipetted into a flask, the mass of the liquid (weighing by difference) 10.1410g 4 sig. figs Density of a Rubber Stopper Stopper mass = 8.453g, displaces 6.5mL of water in a graduated cylinder d=
m 8.453g g g = =1.300 =1.3 V 6.5mL mL mL 2 sig. figs Objectives
Part A: To determine the density of a sugar cube (dsugar = 1.25-1.45 g/cm3?) Part B: Measure the density of a rubber stopper (dstopper = 1.2-1.6 g/cm3?) Part C: Measure the density of 10.00 mL of water (two trials) Part D: Measure the density of 10.00 mL of an unknown liquid (two trials) Part E: Density of an Unknown solid Post Lab Questions 1-4
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