Demand Side Management- Concept and Need For It.

Demand Side Management- Concept and Need For It.

MODULE II ACTUATORS Review of Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems - Control Valves, Actuators. Review of Mechanical Actuation Systems Cams, Gear Trains, Ratchet and pawl, Belt and Chain Drives, Bearings. Electrical Actuation Systems Mechanical Switches, Solid State Switches, Solenoids, Construction and working principle of DC and AC Motors speed control of AC and DC drives, Stepper Motors-switching circuitries for stepper motorServo motors. 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

1 INTRODUCTION Correction element in control system transforming the output of microprocessor - into controlling action on machine or device. 02/23/2020 Electrical Mechanical

Pneumatic & Hydraulic S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 2 PNEUMATIC & HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 3

INTRODUCTION Convert energy - pressurized hydraulic oil / compressed air actuating motion Basic components: Motor to run pump / compressor Pump (to pump liquid from sump) / compressor (to pressurize the atmospheric air) Non return valve to allow flow only in forward direction Pressure relief valve to release excess pressure Accumulator / air receiver smooth out any short term fluctuation Filter to remove dust from air Cooler to cool heated air from compressor Water trap to remove water droplets in air Silencer to reduce noise in the air

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 4 HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEM 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 5

GEAR PUMP PUMPS VANE PUMP RADIAL PISTON PUMP AXIAL PISTON PUMP NOTE: view the link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qy1iV6EzNHg for self explanation 02/23/2020

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 6 ACCUMULATOR Container holding oil along with bladder containing pressurized gas If oil pressure rises - bladder contracts - increases the space to occupy the oil - so reduces the oil pressure in the system If oil pressure reduces - bladder expands - reduces the space to occupy the oil - so increases the

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. oil pressure in the system 02/23/2020 7 PNEUMATIC POWER SYSTEM 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 8

COMPRESSOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=fTDkG1y5R34 ROTARY VANE COMPRESSOR https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z0Y8u6bVSEo SCREW COMPRESSOR https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=iDAKfAib4bY

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 9 VALVES Control of actuators Direction Pressure Pressure limiting / relief valve Pressure regulating valve Pressure sequencing valve Process/Flow

Forms Finite position ON / OFF direction control valves, pressure relief valves & pressure sequence valves Infinite position fully closed position to fully open position pressure regulating valves & flow control valves 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 10 DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES Type of construction spool & poppet

Number of ports (input & output) 2, 3, 4 & 5 Number of switching position 2 & 3 Actuating mechanism mechanical, electrical & pneumatic

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 11 SPOOL VALVES Spool moves right side blocks the vent & air flow from 1 to 2 Spool moves left side blocks the supply & air flow from 2 to 3 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

12 CONT Return position of spool valve spring return 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 13 POPPET VALVES PUSH BUTTON TYPE

PILOT OPERATED TYPE Poppet valve normally closed condition with spring force Whenever push button pressed / pressurized with air open against spring force 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 14 NON RETURN VALVES Basically a directional valve

Allows one direction against spring force Ball gets locked in the port for reverse direction with spring force 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 15 PROPORTIONAL & SERVO CONTROL VALV Gives infinite position By varying the current intensity spool speed differs Proportional valve open loop Servo valve closed loop

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 16 VALVE SYMBOL Number of ports Number of positions Actuation mechanism 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

17 Cont 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 18 DRAW THE SYMBOL FOR FOLLOWING VALVES SOLENOID SOLENOID

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 19 PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES Pressure limiting / relief valves Pressure regulating valves Pressure sequencing valves 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

20 PRESSURE LIMITING / RELIEF VALVES Safety device to limit the pressure in the system Has an orifice , normally closed Spring is set to safe pressure limit When the pressure in system overcomes the force exerted by spring, valve opens & vent the air out / back to sump 02/23/2020

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 21 PRESSURE REGULATING VALVES Control operating pressure in the system Poppet is set under the spring force adjustable handle As per pressure requirement, handle is adjusted, fluid flow across poppet Pressure can be measured at outlet / both inlet & Outlet 02/23/2020 better control

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 22 PRESSURE SEQUENCING VALVES Pressure-control valve - used to force two actuators to operate in sequence Similar to pressure-relief valves Instead of sending flow back to the tank, a sequence valve allows flow to a branch circuit, when a preset pressure is 02/23/2020

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 23 CONT.. Sequence valve 1 is attached with clamping cylinder extension part Only when clamping cylinder is extended completely, the pressure in sequence valve 1 rises and opens out for extension of bending cylinder Sequence valve 2 is attached with bending cylinder retraction part A+ B+ B- A-

Only when bending cylinder is retracted completely, the pressure in sequence valve 2 rises and opens out for retraction of clamping 02/23/2020 cylinder S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 24 PROCESS / FLOW CONTROL VALVES

Control the rate of fluid flow Two parts: valve actuator to move the plug into flow pipe valve restricts body the fluid

flow rate 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 25 Cont Change in input pressure through controller Consequently diaphragm sandwiched in centre between 2 circular steel disc moves Moves the valve stem

Inner valve plug moves within vlve body Restricts the fluid flow 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. Controls fluid flow rate 26 VALVE BODIES Normally open allows the free flow until acted upon by external force Normally close allows the free flow only when

acted upon by external force Single-seated one plug to control flow Double-seated 2 plugs to control flow 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 27 PLUG SHAPES Linear-contour change in flow rate proportional - change in displacement of stem Equal % - rate of change of flow rate equal rate of change of

displacement of stem Quick-opening large change in flow for small change in displacement of stem 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 28 ACTUATOR Linear cylinder & piston/ram Single acting extension through pressure & retraction through spring force Double acting extension retraction through

pressure Rotary linear cylinder & mechanical linkages 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 29 ACTUATORS - CYLINDERS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 30

CONTROL OF SINGLE ACTING 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 31 CONTROL OF DOUBLE ACTING 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

32 ROTARY ACTUATORS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 33 CYLINDER SEQUENCING 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

34 MECHANICAL ACTUATORS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 35 INTRODUCTION Devices - motion converters

Force amplification - Levers Change of speed gears Motion in prescribed manner toothed belt / timing belt / chain, cams

Transfer of rotation about one axis to rotation about another axis - gears, chains, belt drives Transfer of rotation about 90o bevel gears Rotary to linear & viceversa rack & pinion Unidirectional rotation ratchet & pawl

Particular types of Smotion quick return mechanism RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 36 02/23/2020 KINEMATICS - TYPES OF MOTION Translatory motion along X, Y & Z axis Rotary motion along X, Y & Z axis

Complex motion combinations of above 6 motion 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 37 Cont Degrees of freedom (DOF) number of motion a system can move Maximum DOF 6 (3 translator & 3 rotation) To get complete movement DOF must be reduced suitably with number of constraints & orientation of

same Constraints restriction KINEMATIC DESIGN principle of least constraint DOF - 2 DOF - 1 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 38 Cont

Link moves relative to some other Eg: lever, crank, connecting rod, piston, pulley, belt, shaft etc Nodes points of attachment Joints connection between links at nodes 2 nodes 02/23/2020 3 nodes S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 4 nodes

39 Cont.. Kinematic chains: Four bar chain 4 links & 4 joints reciprocating movement(lever) & rotary movement(crank)

Slider crank chain crank, connecting rod, slider Eg: in engines Double lever 02/23/2020 Lever Crank S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. Double Crank 40 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

41 CAMS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 42 GEAR 02/23/2020

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 43 CONT GEAR RATIO 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 44 CONT

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 45 RATCHET & PAWL 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 46

BELT 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 47 CONT 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 48

CHAIN 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 49 BEARINGS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

50 JOURNAL BEARINGS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 51 BALL BEARINGS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

52 CONT 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 53 ROLLER BEARINGS 02/23/2020

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 54 ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 55 INTRODUCTION Converts electrical energy into mechanical force.

1. Switching devices mechanical switches (Relay) and solid-state switch 2. Solenoid type device 3. Drive system motors (AC, DC, Stepper) 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 56 RELAY A.C. applied to coil Magnetic field developed around coil due to A.C.

Attracts the armature made of soft iron Closes & opens the NO & NC switch respectively 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 57 CONT 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

58 SOLID STATE SWITCHES 1. 2. 3. 4. 02/23/2020 Diode Thyristor and triac Bipolar transistor MOSFET

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 59 DIODES Combination of p type and n type semiconductor with junction where charges gets accumulated. Allows current only in one direction (forward biased) 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

60 CONT Used as rectifier to convert A.C to D.C as it closes the circuit only for positive cycle of A.C 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 61 TRANSISTOR 3 terminals Emitter, base & collector

2 junctions emitter base & collector base 2 voltage source Emitter Base (EB) & Collector Base (CB) EB - forward biased & CB reverse biased 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 62 Cont.. 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

63 TRANSISTOR as AMPLIFIER COMMON BASE Electrons flow from n region (emitter) to p region (base) Some electrons gets fused with hole and is lost Rest of abundant electron in base flow to collector (n region) Emitter base forward biased low resistance Collector base reverse biased high resistance Emitter current flow of electron, base current lost electron, collector flow of current More emitter current & low resistance low voltage More collector current & high resistance high voltage Low voltage (EB)

02/23/2020 high voltage (CB) S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 64 Cont 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

65 TRANSISTOR as SWITCH COMMON EMITTER 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 66 CHARACTERESTICS - TRANSISTOR @ IB (forward biased), IC increases with increase in VCE Saturation

and reaches constant Knee point is saturation point Active Cut-off transistor switch on IB zero (reverse biased) - cutoff transistor switched off Active region function as amplifier. 02/23/2020

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 67 DARLINGTON PAIR 2 transistors Base of first is base to pair Emitter of one connected to base of other Both collectors are connected and made as single collector for pair Emitter of second is emitter to the pair Initial base current is amplified and given as base to second in the pair Used to switch on the device which

needs high power input with smaller base current from microprocessor 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 68 MOSFET Metal OxideS Field effect Transistor (MOSFET) P channel N+ type (heavily n doped) as gate N channel P+ type

(heavily p doped) as gate Voltage controlled device 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 69 Gate-source (pn junction) terminal reverse biased Increases the depletion region Restricts the flow of charge from source to

drain terminal Restricting the pathway of the flow of charges 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 70 THYRISTOR (SCR) PNPN 3 junctions & 3 terminals anode (P) , Cathode (N) & gate (P) Anode & gate connected to +ve terminal & cathode - -ve terminal

Function of both diode and transistor rectifies & also controls the current between cathode and anode ON condition: giving gate current increasing the voltage between cathode and anode OFF condition : reduce the voltage between cathode and anode introducing resistor in circuit and increasing the resistance 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 71 THYRISTOR (SCR)

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 72 TRIAC

2 SCR connected parallel and inverted Anode of one and cathode of other forms a terminal 1 (A1) Cathode of first and anode of second forms a terminal 2(A2) Both gates are combined and forms single gate Rectifies in both the cycles 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 73 VOLTAGE CONTROL TRIAC

THYRISTOR ELECTRIC HEATER, MOTOR, LAMPS 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 74 SOLENOID Consists of coil & magnet that moves freely inside the coil Current clockwise direction, induced field inside coil left

side, magnet pulled in Current anticlockwise direction, induced field inside coil right side,

magnet pushed out 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 75 DRIVE SYSTEM: DC MOTOR Brush type DC motor Stator magnet; rotor- coil Commutator & brush have sliding contact conduct of current through coil More wear occurs in commutator & brush

Brushless DC motor Stator coil; Rotor magnet No brushes or sliding contact so no wear 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 76 BRUSH TYPE DC MOTOR Rotor armature - coil of wire Stator - field pole/field coil permanent magnet

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 77 Cont.. Fleming left hand rule current inward; magnetic field right to left; then force towards top Commutator split ring type contact with brush to connect battery Left side commutator - +ve contact Right side commutator - -ve contact Initially current: inward, MF: right left; force upward

Rotor rotates to 90 degree Now brush is in between two commtators so no current, still rotor reaches 180 degree moment of inertia Now right & left side of commutator interchanged current is reversed so force is downward Rotor rotated to 270 degree Now again brush is in between two commtators so no current, still rotor reaches 360 degree moment of inertia Likewise rotates in clockwise direction 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 78

BRUSH TYPE DC MOTOR WITH FIELD COILS Series wound Shunt wound Compound wound Separately excited 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

79 CONT.. SERIES WOUND DC SHUNT WOUND DC MOTOR MOTOR Armature coil & field coil Armature coil & field coil are are in series in parallel Highest starting torque Lowest starting torque Greatest no load speed lowest no load speed Constant speed regulation achieved

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 80 CONT.. SEPERATELY EXCITED COMPOUND DC MOTOR WOUND DC MOTOR Separate control of Armature

2 field coil windings one coil & field coil in series & other in Special case of shunt motor parallel Speed and direction of motor Gets best features of is varied by changing the series & shunt motor armature / field current & (ie) highest starting torque reversing the polarity of coils & constant speed respectively. regulation

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 81 CONTROL OF BRUSH TYPE DC MOTOR (Pulse Width Modulation) - Speed - Direction PWM it chops or converts constant dc to variable one by switching on and off of the circuit continuously

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 82 CONT. R resistors- resist the base current suitably T transistors switching device D diode for blocking reverse current arising from motor when transistors are switched off T1 & T4 on clockwise direction

T2 & T3 on counter clockwise direction R T1 & T2, T1 & T3, T2 & T4, T2 & T1R- off D D T1 T2 R T3 02/23/2020 D

S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. D T4 R 83 CLOSED LOOP CONTROL WITH PWM Closed loop control feedback control measurement system - sensors Microprocessor signal from sensors controls PWM suitably

02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 84 BRUSHLESS PERMANENT MAGNET DC MOTOR No brush so no wear in commutator & brush no sparking Rotor permanent magnet stator 3 pairs of coils (electromagnet) A pair of coil current- +ve

side becomes north pole & -ve side becomes south pole Rotor attracted by poles of electromagnet coils Eg: B - +ve - north & B - -ve south Rotor is 300o A - +ve - north & A - -ve south Rotor is 360o or 0o 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 85

CONT Current through stator controlled transistors Hall effect sensors to detect the position of rotor in order to energise the coil in correct sequence 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 86

CONT 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 87 DRIVE SYSTEM - AC MOTOR Single phase low power requirements Induction cheaper comparatively Synchronous Poly phase high power requirements Induction - cheaper comparatively

Synchronous 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 88 SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR Stator current carrying coil Rotor windings on copper bars arranged squirrel cage end rings connects all bars completes the circuit A.C current to stator Generates alternate magnetic field

Induces alternate emf in rotor Now current carrying rotor in the magnetic field of stator experiences forces Force torque rotates the rotor 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 89 THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR Same like single phase AC motor but has 3 windings in stator located 120o apart Each winding connected separately to three lines of supply

Magnetic field generated is rotating magnetic field Three phase is self starting motor Direction can be reversed by interchanging connection between any two line of connection 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 90 THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR Stator is same like induction motor, rotor

is permanent magnet Magnetic field produced by stator rotates and hence magnet rotates with it Frequency of rotation of rotor is same as the frequency of supply 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 91 CONTROL OF AC MOTOR Speed can be varied by varying the frequency of the supply

Torque is proportional to the ratio of voltage to frequency of supply Hence to maintain constant torque along with varying speed the voltage of supply need to be varied accordingly It is complicated and costlier compared to speed control in DC motor 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 92 STEPPER MOTOR Produces rotation through equal angle steps

Different form of stepper motor (stator is pair of windings): Variable Reluctance soft iron rotor with teeth as poles Permanent Magnet permanent magnet rotor Hybrid permanent magnet rotor enclosed in soft iron end cap with teeths Rotor poles is always less than stator poles 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 93 VARIABLE RELUCTANCE

Opposite pairs of windings energized by current Magnetic flux created between the pair of windings Rotor teeth aligns with the energised windings to produce reluctance (magnetic lines resistance) For next step next pair of windings gets energized Again rotor aligns itself with new pair of energized windings Likewise completes one rotation as the energizing of coil is done in cyclic manner 7.5 or 15 degree 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 94

PERMANENT MAGNET Polarity can be changed n the stator coil by reversing the current Eg: if current flows from A to A, A north pole & A south If current flows from A to A, A north & A - south 02/23/2020 1.8, 7.5, 15, 30, 34, 90 degree

Holding torque can be achieved S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 95 HYBRID Same like permanent magnet type Rotor also sets itself in minimum reluctance Steps per revolution n*m, n no of phase in stator; m no of teeth on rotor

0.9 or 1.8 degree 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 96 SPECIFICATION Phase number of independent windings - stator Step angle equal angle through which rotor rotates Holding torque maximum torque to maintain the rotor in static position in the middle of rotation

Pull-in torque maximum torque against motor starts and reaches synchronization Pull-out torque - maximum torque to maintain synchronization Pull-in speed - maximum speed against motor starts and reaches synchronization Pull-out speed - maximum torque to maintain synchronization Slew range range of switching range between pull in & pull out 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

97 STEPPER MOTOR (2 PHASE) CONTROL 2 Phase stepper motor 2 pairs of stator coil windings Bipolar each phase has 2 wire connections for control 8 transistors required to control Unipolar each phase has one more wire tapered Bipolar in the centre other than 2 wires 4 transistors required Bipolar T1 & T4 on current from A to A T2 & T3 on current from A to A

Similarly, T5 & T8 on current from B to B T6 & T7 on current from B to B Unipolar T1 on current from A to A , T2 on current from A to A Similarly, T3 on current from B to B T4 on 02/23/2020 Unipolar current from B to B S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 98

BIPOLAR 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 99 FULL STEP - BIPOLAR 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 100

HALF STEP - BIPOLAR 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 101 FULL STEP - UNIPOLAR 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC.

102 HALF STEP - UNIPOLAR 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 103 MODULE 2 - SUMMARY

Introduction to actuators Basic components of pneumatic & hydraulic system

Pumps, compressors, accumulators Types & configuration of valves Types of pneumatic & hydraulic actuators cylinders Cylinder sequencing Introduction to mechanical actuators Basics of kinematics Cams, gears, belt & chain drives, bearings Introduction to electrical actuators Relay Solid state switches diodes, transistors, thyristor, mosfet, triac Brush type & brushless DC motor principle, type & control AC motors- principle, type & control Stepper motor - principle, type & control

Servo motor 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 104 02/23/2020 S RAJARAJAN, Asst Prof, BSARC. 105

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