Darwin's Theory of Evolution

Darwin's Theory of Evolution

Darwins Theory of Evolution Important vocabulary Evolution change over time, the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms Theory

well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that occur in the natural world Who was Charles Darwin? born on 12th February 1809 in Shrewsbury, England.

His observations and ideas helped to change the world He studied a variety of life forms in an effort to explain how organisms change over time

* also known as the father of evolution Darwin on the HMS Beagle After completing college Darwin was invited to join the crew of the H.M.S.

Beagle Darwins role on the ship was as naturalist and companion to the captain His job was to collect biological and geological specimens during the ships travel. Galapagos Islands

Charles Darwin arrived in the Galapagos, a group of volcanic islands off the coast of Ecuador, South America in 1835. The observations Darwin made during his visit were to be influential in the

formation of his scientific theories. The Galapagos Islands Charles Darwin arrived in the Galapagos, a group of volcanic islands to collect offDarwin the coast ofbegan

Ecuador, South America onmockingbirds, 15th September 1835. finches, and other animals on the four The observations Darwin made during his visit were to be influential islands. in the formation of his scientific theories.

He noticed that the different islands seemed to have their own, slightly different varieties of animals. As well his observations on the species on the islands, Darwin also wrote descriptions of the geography and geology of each island in his diary.

Darwins Observations Almost every specimen that Darwin had collected on the islands was new to European scientists. Variety is the spice of life

Vermillion flycatcher Galapagos marine iguana Galapagos hawk perched on Galapagos giant tortoise Galapagos marine iguana Vermillion

flycatcher Galapagos hawk perched on Galapagos giant tortoise Darwin observed that each island had its own unique mixture of plants and animals. These were often adapted to survive in the different

conditions found on each island. San Cristobal mockingbird only found on San Cristbal Medium tree-finch only found on Floreana Daisy tree Scalesia divisa only found on San Cristbal

Darwins finches Darwins Finches Darwin made detailed studies of one group of birds, the finches, because of their strong similarities and subtle differences. He noticed that the different finch species varied in size, beak size and shape, and behaviour. He thought that these differences could be best

explained if the finches had gradually become adapted to suit the conditions on the island they inhabited. He presumed therefore that all 13 species of finch found on the islands must be closely related. He also deduced that the individuals with the best set of adaptations for each islands habitat would Darwins finches

Evolution Darwin Continued His Studies Darwin hypothesized that new species could appear gradually through small changes in ancestral species. Darwin inferred that if humans could change species by artificial selection, then perhaps the same process could work in nature.

Evolution Natural Selection The mechanism for change in populations Individuals in a population show variations. Variations can be inherited. Organisms have more offspring than can survive on available resources.

Variations that increase reproductive success will have a greater chance of being passed on. Evolution Darwins theory of natural selection is not synonymous with evolution. It is a means of explaining how

evolution works. Who influenced Darwin? James Hutton (1785) Proposed that Earth was shaped by geological forces that took place over extremely long periods of time. He estimated the Earth to be millions of years old. He wrote the "Theory of the Earth. Thomas Malthus (1798) The human

population was growing faster than the space and food needed to provide for it. Natural disasters and forces of nature would solve the problem. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1809) principle of use and disuse Use and disuse in giraffe necks Example:

A giraffe acquired its long neck because its ancestor stretched higher and higher into the trees to reach leaves, and that the animals increasingly lengthened neck was passed on to its offspring. Structures will change and growor disappear be simply using or dis-using them

Who influenced Darwin? Charles Lyell (1833) Wrote Principles of Geology, made Darwin ask himself: If the earth can change over time, then why cant the things on it? It must have taken life many, many years to change. Natural Selection

Charles Darwin developed his theory of evolution by natural selection using four important observations which led him to two deductions. Observations: 1. All organisms produce more offspring than survive to adulthood 2. Populations remain more or less constant in numbers 3. Members of the same species show variation in characteristics

4. Some characteristics are inherited and so are passed on to the next generation Deductions: A. All organisms are involved in a struggle for survival and only the best adapted survive B. Organisms that survive are more likely to reproduce, and therefore pass on their useful adaptations to their offspring

Observations 1. All organisms produce more offspring than survive to adulthood One of Darwins first observations was that all living things are capable of producing more offspring than are needed to replace their parents. For example a female rabbit can produce up to seven kittens in a litter, but they dont all survive to become adults. Observations

2. Populations remain more or less constant in numbers Darwins second observation was that the numbers of many different species of animals and plants tend to stay fairly constant over long periods of time. For example, herds of many animals live on the plains of Africa, wildebeest, zebra, gazelles etc. Each year many of the females give birth to young, but the overall population sizes of these species stay the same. There are a number of factors which keep the population numbers stable, including competition for food, predation and disease

Observations 3. Members of the same species show variation in characteristics Darwins third observation was that all living things vary slightly in colour, shape, size or behaviour. Below are three different colourings and skin patterns found in the giraffe. West African giraffe

Reticulated giraffe Thornicrofts giraffe Observations 4. Some characteristics are inherited and so passed on to the next generation Darwins fourth observation was that many features are passed on from parent to offspring. Some inherited characteristics

are quite easy to see in humans: Eye color Hair color Some are not so easy to see: Blood group Conclusions From his four observations Darwin was able to deduce two main conclusions. A. All organisms are involved in a struggle for survival.

B. Some individuals are better adapted to their environment than others. Polar bears fighting Pygmy seahorse camouflaged against fan coral How Evolution Occurs Through Natural Selection? Struggle for Existence - Members of each species

compete regularly to obtain food, living space and other necessities of life. Survival of the Fittest Fitness results from adaptations that give an organism advantages for survival. The most fit organisms will survive and reproduce; passing along the advantageous characteristics to their offspring. These changes are

usually only be seen after many generations! Descent with Modification As organisms change over time; they become different, resulting in many varied species. This illustrates common descent. All living things have a common ancestor. Darwin's explanation of evolution..

Natural Variation: - differences among individuals of a species - found in all types of organisms Artificial Selection: - selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation

among different organisms. - What makes an organism better fit then others in the population? ADAPTATIONS What is an adaptation? An adaptation is an inherited trait that makes an organism better able to

survive in a certain environment There are three types of adaptations 1.Structural adaptations 2.Physiological adaptations 3.Behavioral adaptations Structural Adaptations 1. Structural adaptations structural traits that make an organism better

able to live in a certain environment Example: the shape and size of a birds beak, human hand opposable thumbs More Structural Adaptations Mimicry- a harmless species resembles a harmful one, predators learn to avoid both

species More Structural Adaptations Camouflage- species features blend in with the environment Types of Adaptations 2. Physiological adaptations

adaptations that involve the metabolic processes of an organism Example: venom in snakes More Physiological Adaptations Octopus Ink Peppered moths before & after the

industrial revolution This is an example of Industrial Melanism Types of Adaptations 3. Behavioral Adaptations adaptations in responses to the environment Example: nest building in birds

Behavioral Adaptations Hibernation in the winter What type of adaptation is this? What type of adaptation is

this? What type of adaptation is this? What type of adaptation is this? What type of adaptation is this?

What type of adaptation is this? Migration of Birds Types of Natural Selection in a Population Natural selection can affect the distribution of

1. 2. 3. phenotypes in any of three ways. Directional Selection Stabilizing Selection Disruptive Selection Normal Distribution of a Phenotype

in a Population with random variation Frequency of Phenotype Most of the population falls within the bell curve with some exhibiting the two

extreme traits Phenotype (height) Directional Selection Individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end.

Directional Selection Food becomes scarce. Key Low mortality, High

high fitness mortality, low fitness Stabilizing Selection Individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve

Stabilizing Selection Key Low mortality, High high fitness mortality, low fitness

Birth Weight Selection against both extremes keep curve narrow and in same place. Disruptive Selection

Individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle. Name the selection type

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