Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers

Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers

Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers Karen Richardson Cues and Questions A way to help students use what they already know about a topic Activate prior knowledge Cues are hints about what they are going to learn Questions elicit from students what they already know Cueing and questioning account for

80% of what occurs in a classroom Selected Research Results Synthesis Study Stone, 1983 Focus Cues No. of ES 83 Ave. ES Percentil e Gain .75 27

Hamaker, 1986 Questions 100 .75 27 Guzzetti, Snyder and Glass, 1993 .80 29 Cues & 11 Questions Research and Theory

Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. Higher level questions produce deeper learning than lower level questions. Waiting briefly before accepting responses has the effect of increasing the depth of student answers. Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience. Classroom Practice

Explicit Cues: straightforward ways of activating prior knowledge: tell them what theyre going to learn Inferential questions about things, people, actions, events, and states of being the students are studying Analytical questions Analyze errors Construct support Analyze perspectives Advance Organizers

Developed by David Ausubel (1968) Relevant and inclusive introductory materials Bridge the gap between what the learner already knows and what he needs to know Selected Research Results Synthesis Study Stone, 1983 Focus No. of ES Ave. ES Percentil e Gain

Expository 44 .80 29 Narrative 12 .53 20 Skimming 15 .71 26 Illustrated 15

.52 20 Research and Theory Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.* Higher level organizers produce deeper learning than lower level organizers. Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized Different types of advance organizers

produce different results. Classroom Practice Expository advance organizers Narrative advance organizers Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer Graphics Advance Organizers

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