Antonio E. Puente, Ph.D. University of North Carolina Wilmington University of Georgia 04.05.10 Lezaks Neuropsychological Assessment English based Clinical neuropsychology has generalized Western culture concepts across different cultures, especially Spanish speakers residing in the US Today, despite an increasing interest in the effects of culture on cognitive functions, understanding of the cultural impact on neuropsychology is still limited (Ardila,1996).
Time is something primary and crucial in daily routine for Western societies. In contrasts, time is not as important in Hispanic countries. As a result, individuals not familiarized with the Westernized concept of time might have inaccurate scores in timed testing. (Ardila & Moreno, 2001; Puente & Agranovich, 2004, Puente &Salazar, 1998
Eight is a two syllable word in Spanish (Ocho) but one syllable in English. The FAS Fluency Test is often used to determine verbal fluency, however, Spanish the letters F, A, S, are not used with similar frequency Spanish speakers use different names for bus in different countries (bus, micro, microbus, guagua). (Puente & Puente, 2009) Hispanics
are the largest ethnic minority in the U.S. and the fastest in growth (without including undocumented immigrants) Hispanics make about 15% of the U.S. population and are expected to become the largest group by 2050-60. Population: U.S. 304,059,728 Hispanics: 46,822,476 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey, & PEW Research Center.
6 7 8 9 HISPANIC POPULATION BY STATE: 2008 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------State Hispanic % Hispanic Population
Population Within State __________________________________________________________ 1- California 13,434,896 36.6% 2- Texas 8,815,582 36.2%
3- Florida 3,846,267 21.0% 4- New York 3,232,360 16.6% 5- Arizona
1,964,625 30.2% ____________________________________________________________ Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey, & PEW Research Center State Growth South Carolina 88.1%
Minnesota 86.4% Nebraska 84.5% Arkansas 82.1% North Carolina
86.4% Georgia 79.7% Kentucky 76.3% Iowa 71.6%
Nevada 70.9% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey, & PEW Research Center Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey, & PEW Research Center By Term
Chicano/a? Hispanic? Latino/a? By Race Caucasian? Negroid? Mixed (Mulatto)? By
Behavior Language Family Heritage Behaviors Language- Spanish Religion- Catholic or Christian Family Children Friends Cooperation Personalismo
Modesty Respect & Formality Hospitality Enjoyment of Living Typical Educational Background Often Limited Usually in Spanish Many are illiterate in Spanish and English What
it Means to be Educated The difference between schooling and education The value of educado The limits of education College Graduate : Some College: High School Graduate: 12.9% 21.9%
26.0% 9th to 12th Grade: Less than 9th grade: 15.7% 23.5% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey
Family Defined Types of Families Nuclear Extended Divided Double
Types of Family Members Biological Non-biological Predominantly Catholic (70%)* Importance of Religion and Related Social Support Always Hoping for a Milagro Church and Related Services in Spanish
Religion as a Code of Conduct * Pew Hispanic Center Educational Medical Legal Tax ID Numbers Social Security Numbers Drivers Licenses Aliases 11
million undocumented* *Pew Hispanic Center, 2009 Variation of Spanish (e.g., Proverbs) Spanish as a Second Language (i.e., Mayan) Limits and Perils of Translations Importance of Non-Verbal Communication Difficulties With Learning English
Less than 20,000 Foreign born Native born 46.5% 41.9% 20,000 to 40,000 41.2% 50,000 or more
14.5% Foreign born Native born 44.3% Foreign born Native born 42.6% 39.6%
10.9% 18.5% Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey Why do Spanish Speakers do More Poorly on Most Cognitive & Neuropsychological Measures? Can You Actually Translate Tests from English into Spanish? What about Norms? Local? Regional? Universal? Will There be Test Publishers Interested in These Endeavors? Will There Be Sufficient Personnel To Pursue These Questions?
What Can Do We Actually Know? Total number of articles in PsychInfo on Psychological Testing: 29,186 (only 239 involve Psychological Testing & Hispanics) 23 There are relatively few tests available in Spanish There are relatively fewer tests being used by HNS
members that responded to this survey There appears to be approximately 25-40 tests that are used frequently and a larger number of tests that are used highly infrequently. Most, if not all, of the tests available in Spanish do not meet the criteria for the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (1999). The total number of tests available in Spanish is very small and most do not meet current standards for psychological tests according the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.
Due to copyright, varieties of economic concerns and cultural variations, this is a very, very difficult task Culture affects neuropsychological assessments Difficult to Define Hispanic Changing Demographics Difficult, Slow, Economically Challenging The Question of Cognitive and Emotional Equivalence and Construct Irrelevance Where Do We Go From Here?
Antonio E. Puente, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of North Carolina Wilmington Wilmington, North Carolina 28403 [email protected] 910.962.3812
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