Computer Systems - Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Computer Systems - Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

Computer Systems An Overview Main Categories Hardware The physical components of the system Software The instructions that the physical components follow People The users and creators of the system 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Hardware Categories

Input Devices Allow for the entry of Real World data into the system Output Devices Allow for the retrieval of information in Real World form Processing Devices Responsible for the manipulation of the data into information Storage Devices Responsible for the long-term storage of data and programs Communication Devices Allow for computer systems to communicate directly with each other 02/23/2020 CSCI104

Input Devices Key based Requires significant human processing of data Keyboard, Keypad Direct input based Requires less human processing of data mouse, joystick, trackball, touch screen, touch pad, scanner, digital camera 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Output Devices Hard Copy Devices Provides output in a form that can be taken away from the system

Soft Copy Devices Provides output in a form that requires the user to be at the system or to use another device to capture the output. 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Output Devices Hard Copy Printer Most common of the hard copy devices Laser Uses a laser to make dots to form images or text Best for high volume printing Uses toner

Ink Jet Sprays ink to make dots to form images or text Low cost makes it a good choice for home users Dot Matrix Uses a ribbon to lay down ink dots to form images or text Only impact printer still used for personal printing 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Output Devices Hard Copy Plotter Generally used in specialized situations. Drum Paper moves around drum while pens move across surface to make images Used in criminal justice, earth science, and medicine

Flat bed Paper is put on a flat bed and pens move across surface to draw images Usually used for blueprints 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Output Devices Soft Copy Monitor Produces an image on a screen similar to a television set CRT Cathode Ray Tube Old technology Flat Screen LCD, LED, Plasma, OLED

Speaker Requires a sound card for quality output Robotic The computer system itself or some device controlled by the computer system moves Anti-lock brakes, etc. 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Processing Devices Central Processing Unit (CPU) Performs mathematical and logical operations Intel, AMD current CPU makers Features Speed and Efficiency

How many times per second the clock ticks How many things can be done for each clock tick Cache Memory directly and quickly accessible by the CPU Cores Copies of the operating components of the CPU Bandwidth Measure of communication speed between the CPU and the rest of the system 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Processing Devices Main Memory

Stores data and programs that are currently being used 2 gigabytes (GB) minimum in new systems 16 gigabytes (GB) not uncommon for high-end gaming systems More memory is needed when more programs are running at the same time 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Storage Devices Fixed Storage Unit is mounted in the system box Removable Storage Media is removable from device Entire device may be connected by cable and

removed from system 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Storage Devices Fixed Hard Disk drive Multi-platter device that stores data magnetically on surface Platters rotate at high speed to allow for quick retrieval and storage of data and programs Retains memory after power is removed unlike main memory Solid State Drive Solid state electronics are used to store data electronically No mechanical platters rotate allows for much faster retrieval and storage of data and programs Retains memory after power is removed unlike main memory

02/23/2020 CSCI104 Storage Devices Removable Magnetic Disk Floppy disk, ZIP disk, etc. Magnetic Tape Used mainly for backup Optical Disk CD, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD, DVD-RAM, etc. Solid State TM TM

Memory Stick , Compact Flash, SD /MMC, SmartMedia 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Communication Devices Telephone modem Cable Modem

DSL router Network Interface Cards (NICs) Hubs, Switches, etc. WiFi devices BlueTooth devices 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Cloud Computing Storage Processing "Cloud computing" by Sam Johnston - Created by Sam Johnston using OmniGroup's OmniGraffle and Inkscape (includes Computer.svg by Sasa Stefanovic)This vector image was created with Inkscape. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cloud_computing.svg#mediaviewer/

File:Cloud_computing.svg 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Hardware Measurement Units Speed & Time Memory capacity

1 hertz = 1 cycle/second 81000 bits byte hz = = 11kilohertz 1000 khz = 1 megahertz 1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte 1000 mhz = 1 gigahertz 1024 KB = 1 megabyte 1 millisecond (ms) = 1/1,000 second

1024 MB =(ns) 1 =gigabyte 1 nanosecond 1/1,000,000,000 second 1024 GB = 1 terabyte 1024 TB = 1 petabyte 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Software Categories System software Controls the hardware of the computer system Allows applications to run on the system Application software

Performs a task which provides a result to the user 02/23/2020 CSCI104 System Software Operating System Manages the hardware Allocates resources to applications Utility Software Used to perform maintenance on the system Allows for expansion of the system 02/23/2020

CSCI104 Operating Systems Microsoft Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7 Windows Vista, Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows NT Windows 98, Windows 95, Windows ME Windows 3.1, DOS Non-Microsoft Linux Unix 02/23/2020 CSCI104 Application Software

Word Processing Microsoft Word 2016 Database Spreadsheet Microsoft Excel 2016 Presentation software Microsoft PowerPoint 2016 Games Graphics 02/23/2020 CSCI104 People End users

Use a computer system to allow or help them to perform their work Programmers Write the programs that are run on a computer system Systems analysts Design computer programs Computer operators Maintain the computer systems, usually in a large computer environment Administrators Determine needs and usage of the computer systems 02/23/2020 CSCI104

CSCI104 Requirements Hardware Access to D2L for submitting the homework assignments Access to a computer system to work on the homework Software An operating system that is compatible with some recent version of Windows Microsoft Word 2016, Microsoft Excel 2016, Microsoft PowerPoint 2016 Time 02/23/2020 CSCI104

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