of conduct that help govern behaviors of individuals and groups that often arise from a communitys perspective of good or bad behaviors (Martin & Nakayama) Decision of Points (Kreps) 1. Tell the truth. 2. Do no harm 3. Treat people ORGANIZATION
A living, open system connected by the flow of information between and among people who occupy various roles and positions. (Goldhaber) The planned coordination of the collective activities of two or more people who, functioning on a relatively continuous basis and through division of labor and a hierarchy of authority, seek to achieve a common goal or set of goals. (Robins ) Organizational Changes Organizational
Structure Management Style Information Technology Competition Communication Organizational Changes Organizational Structure Hierarchal & Tall to PDM, Flat, & Matrix (Team)
Hierarchy (Greek meaning sacred rule) system of ranking & organizing things & people, creating division of labor land centralized control Organizational Changes Management Styles Authoritative to Coaching or Empowered Classical to Human Resources
Information Technology Limited, Static to Pervasive, Essential Competition Local, National to Global Communication Top Down to Multi-directional Types of Organizations Profit
vs. non profit Small business vs. corporate Commercial vs. education Organizational vs. Group Complexity Structure/hierarchy Multiple voices Multiple goals Nature of relationships ([im] personal)
Culture (history, tradition,& shared exp.) Common Definitional Points OC occurs w/in a complex open system which is influenced by and influences its environments, both internal & external. OC involves messages & their flow, purpose, direction, and media. OC involves people & their attitudes, feelings, relationships, behaviors, & skills.
Organizational Communication The process of creating and exchanging messages within a network of interdependent relationships to cope with environmental uncertainty (Goldhaber) Components Definition Process-ongoing (continuous) Message (consider) Participants Modality
Method of diffusion (channel) F2F, oral, written, technology Purpose (function) Task Maintenance Human-relational Innovative-creativity Modality-Nonverbal Nonverbal communication includes all aspects of communication other than
spoken or written words themselves (expressed by other than linguistic means). Nonverbal Communication Verbal+Vocal+Bodied=Total Message Words+Paralinguistic+Kinesics 7% + 38% + 55% = (Mehrabian Equation) 100%
Nonverbal Communication One cannot, not communicate. Nonverbal communication can be ambiguous. Meanings vary over time. Meanings vary according to context. Meanings vary according to relationships. Nonverbal communication is guided by rules particular to a culture. Nonverbal Communication
NV communication can interact with verbal com Can repeat May highlight May complement May contradict Can substitute Sometimes more believable Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal
communicative behavior can regulate interaction. Nonverbal communicative behavior can establish relationship level meanings. Nonverbal communication reflects culture values and is culture bound. Categories of Nonverbal Com Kinesics-posture, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact (oculesics) Paralanguage-pitch, rate, volume, inflection, Haptics-touch (appropriate and inappropriate) Proxemics-space (personal and public) Environment-room shape, arrangement, access,
lighting, noise, color, seating arrangement Presentation-physical appearance and clothing choice Artifacts-personal objects that reflect and announce identity; how we personalize our space Definition Components Network-creation & exchange of messages among individuals that takes place over set pathways
Roles Formality Direction (horizontal, upward, downward) Serial process-efficiency Interdependence-interrelated parts
Relationships-connected by people & comm. Environment-internal & external Uncertainty-equivocality/ambiguity-coping Organizational Communication The process of creating and exchanging messages within a network of interdependent relationships to cope with environmental uncertainty (Goldhaber) WIIOS LAWS OF COMMUNICATION
Communication usually fails, except by chance. If a message can be understood in different ways, it will be understood in just that way which does the most harm. There is always somebody who knows better than you what you meant by your message. The more communication there is, the more
difficult it is for communication succeed. Reasons for Comm Failure Inadequate information Information overload Poor quality information Poor timing Lack of feedback or follow-up Problems with channel choice Reasons for Comm Failure Incompetent
communication Ineffective goal setting Communication anxiety Lack of retention Language barriers Noise Unethical communication
The Nervous System: The Synapse. Communication between cells at the synapse occurs by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are packaged in vesicles, and are released by the presynaptic cell (neuron) and received by the postsynaptic cell (neuron, muscle, gland).
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