Chlamydiosis Mammalian - Iowa State University

Chlamydiosis Mammalian - Iowa State University

Mammalian Chlamydiosis Overview Organism History Epidemiology Transmission Disease in Humans Disease in Animals Prevention and Control Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 THE ORGANISM The Organism

Chlamydiaceae Obligate intracellular bacteria Gram negative Two forms Infective elementary body Metabolically active reticulate body Species Chlamydia spp., Chlamydophila spp. Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public

Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center Species Zoonotic Chlamydophila abortus Chlamydophila felis Chlamydophila pneumoniae Centerfor forFood Food Security

Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center Species Non-zoonotic

Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydophila caviae Chlamydophila pecorum Chlamydia suis Chlamydia muridarum Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State

State University, 2013 Center EPIDEMIOLOGY Geographic Distribution Worldwide C. felis C. pneumoniae Most sheep-raising regions C. abortus Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013

Morbidity and Mortality: Humans C. abortus, C. felis Abortion rarely reported C. pneumoniae Not clearly zoonotic Non-zoonotic form common in humans Causes 10-15% of all cases of communityacquired pneumonia, bronchitis and sinusitis Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 Morbidity and Mortality: Animals C. abortus

Important cause of enzootic abortion Sheep: up to 30% affected Goats: 60-90% affected Cyclic pattern in endemic herds C. felis Infections common in cats Conjunctivitis in kittens Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 TRANSMISSION

Life Cycle Elementary body (EB) Small, metabolically inert Stable in the environment Taken up by host cells Transforms in to reticulate body (RB) Metabolically active Divide and differentiate into EB EB released from cell Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013

Transmission in Humans Ingestion Aerosol Direct inoculation (eye) Venereal (possibly) Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 Transmission in Animals C. abortus Shed in placenta, uterine discharges, other abortion products Ingestion, aerosol, venereal C. felis

Shed in ocular and nasal secretions C. pneumoniae Unknown Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 DISEASE IN HUMANS C. abortus in Humans Initial signs nonspecific Influenza-like illness Abortion

14th-36th week of pregnancy Other clinical manifestations Septicemia, hepatitis, kidney dysfunction, pneumonia, DIC Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 C. pneumoniae in Humans Zoonotic exposure not linked to cases of human disease Symptoms likely

any Fever Non-productive cough Sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis Arthritis Ocular disease Genital and skin infection Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013

Diagnosis Difficult to diagnose No gold standard tests Serology Immunofluorescence PCR Usually designed to detect C. trachomatis Culture Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 Treatment Antibiotics

Tetracycline Erythromycin Quinoloes Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center

DISEASE IN ANIMALS Species Affected C. abortus Sheep, goats, deer, cattle, llamas C. felis Cats, iguanas C. pneumoniae Horses, dogs, koalas, rats, iguanas, frogs Centerfor forFood

Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center C. abortus in Animals Causes enzootic abortion Late term abortion, stillbirth, weak or low birth weight lambs Dams usually remain healthy

Experimentally infected males Orchitis, epididymitis Decreased fertility May be carried asymptomatically Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center

C. felis in Animals Conjunctivitis in cats Often begins in one eye but becomes bilateral Blepharospasm, chemosis, congestion, ocular discharge Mild to moderate rhinitis Pneumonitis Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and

and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center C. pneumoniae in Animals Koalas Asymptomatic Respiratory disease Horses Asymptomatic

Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center Chlamydiae in Reptiles and Amphibians C. abortus, C. felis, C. pneumoniae

Lethargy Anorexia Suppurative pneumonia Chronic nephritis Hepatitis Increased mortality rates Centerfor forFood

Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center Post Mortem Lesions C. abortus Placentitis Necrotic cotyledons Relatively

normal fetus Petechiae C. felis Conjunctivitis Rhinitis Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013

Center Diagnosis Antigen detection Immunofluorescence Immunoperoxidase ELISA PCR Culture

Serology Paired sera preferable Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center Treatment Antibiotics

Tetracyclines Erythromycin Tylosin Quinolones Chloramphenicol Centerfor forFood Food Security

Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center PREVENTION AND CONTROL Prevention in Humans Pregnant women Avoid contact with pregnant or aborting

ruminants Consider avoiding contact with all sheep and goats Good hygiene Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State

State University, 2013 Center Prevention in Animals Use disease-free replacement stock Isolate sick animals Practice good hygiene Wash hands Footwear Clean and disinfect infected premises Vaccinate Centerfor forFood

Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center Disinfection Quaternary ammonium compounds 1:1,000 dilution 1% sodium hypochlorite 70% ethanol

Glutaraldehyde Formaldehyde Moist heat (121C for 15 minutes) Dry heat (160-170C for 1 hour) Centerfor forFood Food Security Security and and Public Public Health, Health, Iowa Iowa State State University, 2013 Center

Additional Resources Center for Food Security and Public Health www.cfsph.iastate.edu Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013 Acknowledgments Development of this presentation was made possible through grants provided to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division, and the

Multi-State Partnership for Security in Agriculture. Authors: Kerry Leedom Larson, DVM, MPH, PhD, DACVPM; Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD Reviewer: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH, DACVPM Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2013

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