Chemistry in the Atmosphere

Chemistry in the Atmosphere

Chemistry in the Atmosphere Chapter 17 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Nitrogen Cycle 17.1 Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation N2 (g) + O2 electrical

(g) energy 2NO (g) 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) 2NO2 (g) + H2O (g) HNO2 (aq) + HNO3 (aq) Industrial Nitrogen Fixation N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) NH3 + 2O2

catalyst 2NH3 (g) HNO3 + H2O NH3 + HNO3 NH4NO3 CH4 + 2H2O

4H2 + CO2 17.1 The Oxygen Cycle 17.1 h + N2 h + N h + O2 17.1

2N N + eO2+ + e- Chemical Rxs in the Thermosphere e- + O p+ + N2 O* N+2* O + h +

N2 + h O* + e- N+2* + p+ + e- green and red blue and violet NO2* O + NO NO2*

Glowing tail section of space shuttle NO2 + h orange 17.2 Depletion of Ozone in the Stratosphere O3 production O2 UV O+O

< 240 nm O + O2 + M O3 destruction O3 UV O + O3 dynamic equilibrium

O3 + M constant concentration of O3 in stratosphere O + O2 2O2 UV Ozone Layer 17.3

Depletion of Ozone in the Stratosphere Anthropogenic O3 destruction CFCl3 UV CF2Cl2 UV CFCl2 + Cl CF2Cl + Cl

Cl + O3 ClO + O2 + ClO + O Cl + O2 O3 + O 2O2 Cl catalyzes the reaction

17.3 Concentrations of Chlorine Monoxide and Ozone Versus Latitude 17.3 Polar stratospheric clouds provide a surface for the rx: HCl + ClONO2 Cl2 + HNO3

Spring sunlight Cl2 + h Cl + O3 ClO + O2 + ClO + O Cl + O2 O3 + O 2O2

2Cl 17.3 Ozone Depletion (in purple) Over the South Pole 17.3 2H2S (g) + 3O2 (g) SO2 (g) + OH (g) HOSO2 (g) + O2 (g) SO3 (g) + H2O (g)

2SO2 (g) + 2H2O (g) HOSO2 (g) HO2 (g) + SO3 (g) H2SO4 (g) H2SO4 aerosols have a local cooling effect on the atmosphere. 17.4 The trapping of heat near Earths surface by gases in the atmosphere is the greenhouse effect. H2O + h

H 2 O* CO2 + h CO2* 17.5 Why dont N2 and O2 contribute to the greenhouse effect ? N2 and O2 cannot absorb IR radiation.

3 vibration modes of H2O 2 of the vibration modes of CO2 17.5 The Carbon Cycle 17.5 The Yearly Variation in the CO2 Concentration At Mauna Loa, Hawaii

17.5 The Temperature Rise on Earths Surface from 1880 to 1996 17.5 Acid Rain SO2 (g) + OH (g) HOSO2 (g) + O2 (g) SO3 (g) + H2O (g)

HOSO2 (g) HO2 (g) + SO3 (g) H2SO4 (g) Mean precipitation pH in 1994 17.6 CaCO3 (s) + H2SO4 (aq) CaSO4 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

2CaCO3 (s) + 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2CaSO4 (s) + CO2 (g) The Effect of Acid Rain on the Marble Statue of George Washington (New York, City). Photos Taken in 1944 and 1994 17.6 17.6 Photochemical smog is formed by the reactions of automobile exhaust in the presence of sunlight.

Primary pollutants: NO, CO and unburned hydrocarbons Secondary pollutants: NO2 and O3 N2 (g) + O2 (g) 2NO (g) + O2 (g) NO2 (g) + h O (g) + O2 (g) + M 2NO (g) 2NO2 (g) NO (g) + O (g) O3 (g) + M 17.7

Typical Variations with Time in the Concentration of Air Pollutants on a Smoggy Day 17.7 9 24.1 days 238 4.51 x 10 yr 234 92U 90Th 234

91Pa 7.5 x 104 yr 226 1.6 x 103 yr 230 90Th 88Ra 1.17 min 222 86Rn

5 234 2.47 x 10 yr 92U 3.82 d 17.8

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